guides 15 16 - RNA processing in eukaryotes it is the...

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RNA processing- in eukaryotes it is the changes that a primary RNA transcript undergoes to become a mature RNA. This includes splicing, 5’capping, and Poly A tail. Protein isoform- version of a protein with only small differences to another isoform of the same protein. Different forms of a protein may be produced from different but related genes, or may arise from the same gene by alternative splicing. A large number of isoforms are caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms, small genetic differences between alleles of the same gene. This explains why there is a smaller number of coding genes and more proteins. Exonic splicing silencer- is a small region of an exon that inhibits or silences splicing of the pre-mRNA Ubiquitin- small regulatory protein that found in eukaryotes. Ubiquitination refers to the post-translational modification of a protein by attaching one or more ubiquitin monomers. The most prominent function of Ubiquitin is labeling proteins for proteasomal degradation performed by Proteasome. Proteolysis- degradation of proteins caused by proteases. Proteasome- protein complexes inside all eukaryotes located in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The main function of the proteasome is to degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds. Enzymes that carry out such reactions are called proteases. Proteasomes are a major mechanism by which cells regulate the concentration of particular proteins and degrade misfolded proteins. The degradation process yields peptides which can then be further degraded into amino acids and used in synthesizing new proteins. Proteins are tagged for degradation
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