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wk15-Hmwk11 - 4 Consider a cell that can normally grow...

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Biology 201. Homework on Chapter 9 1. Describe what happens to pyruvate if sufficient oxygen is present. 2. in step 6 of the citric acid cycle, succinate is converted to fumarate. The reaction is coupled to the conversion of FAD to FADH2. Would succinate or fumarate have more carbon-hydrogen bonds? Is succinate being oxidized or reduced? Why is FAD being used here instead of NAD? 3. Aliens land at UNM. You find that in almost all ways, their metabolism is identical to that of humans. One important difference is that they do not use NAD/ NADH. At every step in the oxidation of biological molecules where humans use NAD/NADH aliens use FAD/FADH-2. At steps where humans use FAD/FADH- 2, the aliens do as well. a. Who makes more ATP/mole of glucose, aliens or humans? Explain b. Who makes more ATP by substrate level phosphorylation?
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Unformatted text preview: 4. Consider a cell that can normally grow either with or without oxygen . You also have a mutated strain of this same cell type. In the mutated strain, citrate synthetase is present in a mutated form. The enzyme still converts reactant normally to produce but no allosteric molecules can bind the allosteric site. In the absence of oxygen, will the mutated cell make less more or the same ATP than the normal cell? How about in the presence of oxygen? 5. How is ATP made in electron transport? Provide full details. 6. Why, in eukaryotic cells, does an NADH from glycolysis result in only 2 ATP but in prokaryotes it results in 3 ATP? 7. If in an experiment, protons could somehow rapidly be removed from the inner membrane space, how would this affect ATP synthesis by electron transport?...
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