History Notes (College) - Chapter 15 What is Freedom...

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Chapter 15: What is Freedom? Reconstruction (1865-1877)Blacks have sufficient intelligence to maintain themselves in freedom and enjoy equal protection of the law This period is known as ReconstructionRebuild of the nation after the civil warSpecial Field Order 15: set aside land for black families to settleBlack women stayed at homeA higher proportion of white women in the workforceClass January 21:What is freedom?Self-determinationFreedom from oppression and restrictionLife, liberty, and pursuit of happinessAbility to contribute to public events: voting, petition, assemblyBasic human rights: access to housing and foodCitizenship rightsRight to bear arms, privacy, religion, freedom of speechFreedom to express ideas/self-interest1619-1865246 years of enslavement1866-1965100 years of Jim Crow1966-202054 years without legalized racial restrictions346 years: A majority of History is legalized racial restrictions1.Aftermath of Civil Wara.How to rebuild the nation because the economy of the South was devastatedi.Plantation, fields, etc were too damagedii.Emancipation destroyed profitiii.Confederate money was worthlessb.Brought mass death to the nationi.Roughly 630,000 soldiers and 30,000 civilians diedii.260,000 were Confederates2.Integrating Formerly enslaved African Americans a.Freedmen and women celebrated freedom by partaking in formerly illegal activities b.Many set up black churches and first black schools in the southc.Congress passed the 13th amendment banned slavery in the USd.Frederick Douglass - “Slavery is not abolished until the black man has the ballot”e.Black organized conventions and parades demanding to votef.Some enslaved black insisted that they had land to compensate for unpaid laborg.Some parts of South: African Americans took over plantations and proclaimed
land was theirsh.North believed could be reformed following principle of free labori.Same rights that north labor works hadii.Congress established Freedmen’s Bureau in March 1965 under O.O Howardiii.Ensured equal treatment before the lawiv.Failed to work3.Presidential Reconstructiona.Andrew Johnson former Tennessee senatorb.A fervent believer in states’ rightsi.More state power of federal powerc.Former slaveholderd.Johnson offered a pardon to almost all Confederate who swore an oath of allegiancee.Black Codes, which limited the freedoms of former slaves, introduced across the Southi.Allowed local officials to arrest and fine unemployed blacks and make them work for whitesii.Banned from renting or own a housef.Lack of punishment for or reform of the South angered many republicans in the Northg.Believed federal power should be used to ensure the rights of African Americans and weaken political stronghold of Southh.Thaddeus Stevens: a proposed bill to reinstate plantations in the Southi.1866: Johnson vetoed a Civil Rights Billed passed by Congress that declared all born within the U.S are citizensj.Congress overturned Johnson’s veto and proposed 14th amendment that

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