evolve 1 - physical anthropology is a branch of...

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physical anthropology is a branch of anthropology that studies the mechanisms of biological evolution , genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology , primate morphology , and the fossil record of human evolution Paleoanthropology , which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology , is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. Geology is the science and study of the solid matter that constitutes the Earth . Encompassing such things as rocks, soil, and gemstones, geology studies the composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape Earth's components. Natural selection is the process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms , and unfavorable heritable traits become less common. Natural selection acts on the phenotype , or the observable characteristics of an organism, such that individuals with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less favorable phenotypes. If these phenotypes have a genetic basis, then the genotype associated with the favorable phenotype will increase in frequency in the next generation. Over time, this process can result in adaptations that specialize organisms for particular ecological niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species . (DARWIN) Artificial selection is the intentional breeding for certain traits, or combinations of traits, over others. It was originally defined by Charles Darwin in contrast to the process of natural selection , in which the differential reproduction of organisms with certain traits is attributed to improved survival and reproductive ability in the natural habitat of the organism. Artificial selection that produces an undesirable outcome from a human perspective is sometimes called negative selection An adaptation is a positive characteristic of an organism that has been favored by natural selection . Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information . DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints , since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells , such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes , but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. Chromosomes are organized structures of DNA and proteins that are found in cells . Chromosomes contain a single continuous piece of DNA, which contains many
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course ANTHROPOLO 104 taught by Professor Renalds during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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evolve 1 - physical anthropology is a branch of...

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