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Chapter 18 (word) - Chapter 18-Human Resource Policies and...

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Chapter 18-Human Resource Policies and Practices Job Analysis: Definition : Job analysis is a systematic procedure for describing jobs. It is a thorough review of a job and its component tasks. Includes : -Job description, which deals with task requirements -Job specification, which focuses on the worker requirements. -KSAO’s which stands for Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other. Purpose of Job Analysis: -Improve/develop employee selection procedures. -Improve/develop performance appraisal procedures. -Identify training gaps and appropriate methods. -Improve training content. -Job design and job reengineering. -Develop appropriate compensation programs. -Manage EEOC issues. Job Analysis Approaches: Worker Orientation (Behavior) -Critical Incidents -PAQ Work Orientation (Tasks) -Task Analysis Inventories -Functional Job Analysis Why Should We Be Involved: -Incumbents. -Managers. -Team members. -Consultants (or other outsiders) Methods of Collecting Information: Interview: -Most frequently used in all countries except Asian countries who bases on test scores -Used more than “prediction of performance” device -Used to match applicant’s personal characteristics and values to the organizations culture and image -In U.S. interviews are heavily weighted -Even if test scores, recommendations are good -Can be done individually or in groups Pros: -Valuable for assessing an applicant’s applied mental skills, level of conscientiousness, and interpersonal skills -Especially if related to job position
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-Explains why high positions require several different interview processes -Question job experts Cons: -Success depends on interviewing skills -Because interview is weighted heavily, the candidate that performs poorly on an interview actually may be the best candidate, and visa versa -Because of the unstructured interview process, which is casual and random, it is not a very effective selection device -Are often biased and often only modestly relate to future job performance -Still managers are reluctant to use a structured interview process -Workers may distort information -Because of biases, interviewers may tend to favor applicants who share the same attitudes, giving unduly high weight to negative information, and allowing the order in which applicants are interviewed to influence evaluations Addressing problem: Giving a uniform method of recording information, and standardizing the rating of the applicant’s qualifications will enhance the interview Giving behavioral structured interviews are also more effective EX: How would you handle this particular problem? Observation: Pros: -Good for manual tasks. -Observer can see whole cycle. Cons: -Hawthorne Effect. -Limited for mental jobs. -May miss infrequent tasks. -Subject to observer interpretation.
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