Chapter 2.docx - Chapter 2 Colonists on the Margins...

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Chapter 2- Colonists on the Margins - Virginia Company of London: English joint-stock company established in 1606 by a royal charter that gave it exclusive rights to colonize from New England south to Virginia. - Jamestown: the first permanent English settlement in America, founded in 1607 and located in what is today coastal Virginia. - Pocahontas: daughter of Powhatan, who saved John Smith’s life at his trial. - Powhatan: paramount chief of Tsenacommacah. - John Smith: former colonist who initiated relations between Jamestown and Tsenacommacah, who was saved from death by Pocahontas. - James I: King of England and Scotland during the time of Pocahontas. - John Rolfe: Pocahontas’ husband. Conquest Begins and Trade Expands, 1565-1607 - Florida and New Mexico were the first European outposts in North America. - Spain Takes Claim to Florida o Philip II: king of Spain, who assisted in the recovery efforts of a stone fort to protect settlers in Florida. Royal Orders for New Discoveries: decree by King Philip II of Spain that missionaries should play the principal role in exploring, pacifying, and colonizing new territories and mandated that baptized Indians should live on missions, learn to speak Spanish, keep livestock, cultivate European crops, and use European tools to master European crafts. o Indian resistance and European attacks nearly finished off Florida o Menendez ran out of money and lost interest in Florida in 1567. - New Spain into the Southwest o Juan de Onate: conquered New Mexico, motivated by riche and glory. o New Mexico served as a base for Spanish expeditions into the region. o The soldiers would extort, rape, and murder the current residents. o Wanted to start a Spanish harbor in California for trade with East Asia. - England Enters Eastern North America o Three European powers that contested Spanish claims to North America and the Caribbean in the 16 th century: France, the Netherlands, and England. o Edict of Nantes: proclamation by King Henry IV of France granting rights to Huguenots. o Commons: lands open to all residents. o Joint-stock company: an early form of shareholding company that was used by the British to finance development of the colonies.

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