14Brain3perPage (1).pdf - 14 Brain Brain Development \u2022 CNS forms from the neural tube \u2022 Ventricles form from hollow tube called neurocoel 1

14Brain3perPage (1).pdf - 14 Brain Brain Development u2022...

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5/9/19 1 14 - Brain Brain Development CNS forms from the neural tube Ventricles form from hollow tube called neurocoel
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5/9/19 2 Neurocoel Ventricles and central canal Neurocoel D u r in g d e v e lo p m e n t E x p a n d s a n d F o ld s B e c o m e s v e n tr ic le s a n d c e n tr a l c a n a l Ventricles L in e d b y c ilia te d e p e n d y m a Circuates CSF Cranial Meninges Dura mater Arachnoid mater Subarachnoid space C S F Pia mater Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Located in Subarachnoid space – Ventricles Central canal Functions Protects from chemical & physical injury Nourishment of adjacent nervous tissue Waste removal – O 2 /CO 2 exchange
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5/9/19 3 CSF volume: 150 ml r e p la c e d ~ 8 h o u r s ~500 ml produced per day Produced by filtration at choroid plexuses choroid plexus • capillaries covered by ependymal cells located on walls of ventricles CSF circulated by C ilia te d e p e n d y m a l c e lls ( e p e n d y m o c y te s ) P r e s s u r e d if f e r e n c e s in th e s y s te m reabsorbed at arachnoid granulations (arachnoid villi) Hydrocephalus Normally, formation rate = reabsorption rate If CSF reabsorption is blocked, à hydrocephalus
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5/9/19 4 Blood Brain Barrier series of elements 1- tight junctions between brain capillary cells 2- astrocytes influence capillary permeability 3- molecular weight and solubility of molecule blood brain barrier is incomplete in some areas: hypothalamus/pineal gland/ neurohypophysis capillaries of choroid plexus (blood-CSF barrier) Brain Stem regions Midbrain –green Pons -blue medulla oblongata – orange medulla oblongata runs from foramen magnum to pons contains – ascending & descending tracts – nuclei responsible for vital functions S e e n e x t s lid e
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5/9/19 5 medulla oblongata nuclei What is a nucleus? autonomic nuclei – reticular formation – alertness – cardiovascular reflex centers: heart rate, strength of beat, blood flow – respiratory rhythmicity centers: respiratory rate centers coordinating reflexes of the throat – swallowing/coughing/sneezing/hiccuping/vomiting site of crossover of sensory/motor information pons pneumotaxic & apneustic centers – adjust respiration: • rate • depth contains tracts processing info for cerebellum ascending, descending, & transverse tracts midbrain cerebral peduncles –bundles of fibers – descending (motor) fibers – fibers to cerebellum corpora quadrigemina – nuclei which process • visual stimuli • auditory stimuli
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5/9/19 6 corpora quadrigemina (4 colliculi, pl)
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  • Mark Bolke

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