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Lec4 - University of California Berkeley Civil Engineering...

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University of California, Berkeley Professor Mark Hansen Civil Engineering 93 Engineering Data Analysis Civil Engineering 93 Lecture 4 9/6/07 Igneous Rocks Igneous Processes and Rocks o Igneous Processes – magma formation, compostion differentiation o Basic Terms Magma – silicate melt below earth surface Lava – silicate melt above ground surface Extrusives – Magma that reaches the surface and tends to cool fast Intrusives – Magma that is trapped underground and cools slowly o What controls rock melting Temperature Closer to the core of earth, the hotter Chemical Composition Pressure Water Content Places of Volcanic Activity o Plate Subduction – Oceanic Island Arc o Plate Divergence o Hot Spot o Plate Subduction – Continental Volcanic Arc Formation of magma o Mantle provides magma for spreading centers and hot spots o Partial continental rock in subduction zones Crsytal forms in Magma chambers o They fall to the bottom of the viscous magma o Crystal forms at the top of a magma chamber due to cooling o Can fill up the chamber and squeeze magma up veins Creates interesting veins of granite o
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