memory.pdf - CS 6303 Computer Architecture Unit 5 u2013 Q...

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CS 6303 - Computer Architecture Unit 5 Q & A 1. Explain Various Memory Technologies in detail The term memory hierarchy is used in computer architecture when discussing performance issues in computer architectural design, algorithm predictions, and the lower level programming constructs such as involving locality of reference. A "memory hierarchy" in computer storage distinguishes each level in the "hierarchy" by response time. Since response time, complexity, and capacity are related, the levels may also be distinguished by the controlling technology. Memory is categorized into volatile and non-volatile memories, with the former requiring constant power ON of the system to maintain data storage. Furthermore, a typical computer system provides a hierarchy of different times of memories for data storage. There are four major storage levels Internal Processor registers and cache. Main the system RAM and controller cards. On-line mass storage Secondary storage. Off-line bulk storage Tertiary and Off-line storage. SVCET
CS 6303 - Computer Architecture Unit 5 Q & A Internal or cache: Cache is the fastest accessible memory of a computer system. Its access speed is in the order of a few nanoseconds. It is volatile and expensive, so the typical cache size is in the order of megabytes. Main memory (gb): Main memory is arguably the most used memory. The main memory is reasonably fast, with access speed around 100 nanoseconds. It also offers larger capacity at a lower cost. Typical main memory is in the order of 10 GB. However, the main memory is volatile. RAM: Random Access Memories are volatile in nature. As soon as the computer is switched off, the contents of memory are also lost. ROM: Read only memories are non volatile in nature. The storage is permanent, but it is read only memory. We cannot store new information in ROM. Several types of ROM o PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory; it can be programmed once as per user requirements. o EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory; the contents of the memory can be erased and store new data into the memory. In this case, we have to erase whole information. o EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory; in this type of memory the contents of a particular location can be changed without effecting the contents of other location. Online mass storage (or) secondary storage (tb): Secondary storage refers to non-volatile data storage units that are external to the computer system. Hard drives and solid state drives are examples of secondary storage. They offer very large storage capacity in the order of terabytes at very low cost. Therefore, database servers typically have an array of secondary storage devices with data stored distributedly and redundantly across these devices.

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