Lec3 - University of California Berkeley Civil Engineering...

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University of California, Berkeley Professor Ken Johnson Civil Engineering 70 Engineering Geology Civil Engineering 70 Lecture 3 9/4/07 CE70 Labs begin this week! MINERALS/ROCKS o What is a mineral? o Mineral Formation o Physical Properties o Cleavage o Rocks/Rock Cycle Summary of Last Lecture o Uniformitarianism o Earth and Solar System formation resulted small rocky inner planets and large and gassy outer planets o Zonation of Earth’s Structure Atmosphere Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mantle Outer Liquid Core Inner Solid Core o Plate Tectonics Driving force is convection of heat from earth’s core Crust is created in spreading center and consumed in subduction zones Supporting data Continental drift Biologic species distribution Geologic Correlation Earthquake Distribution Volcano Distribution Seafloor Magnetic Anomalies Minerals o Building blocks of rocks Naturally occurring Solid Crystalline Substance Generally Inorganic Specific chemical composition o Minerals Natural – Iron Ore – Hemantite Solid – Sand – Quartz Inorganic – rock salt – (halite) o Non-Mineral Liquid, organic, Gas, Artificial Chemical Bonds in Minerals Lecture 3 1 of 5 9/4/07 Written By Raymond Leung
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University of California, Berkeley Professor Ken Johnson Civil Engineering 70 Engineering Geology o Ionic Bonds Most common – about 90% of all minerals are ionic compounds Sodium Chloride (halite) Grows like a cube Cleavage along these cubic faces o Covalent Bonds Stronger than ionic since there is a sharing of electrons Carbon Tetrahedron Arrangement o Strong, hence the strength of a diamond
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