Lec5 - University of California, Berkeley Civil Engineering...

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University of California, Berkeley Professor Ken Johnson Civil Engineering 70 Engineering Geology Civil Engineering 70 Lecture 5 9/11/07 Volcanoes Igneous Rocks – Engineering Properties o High Compressive strength o Joint control behavior Tectonic Joints formed by stress changes after cooling Exfoliation Joints formed by unloading to the exposed surface Goals o Volcanoes Location – where and why? Composition – Of the melts that provide them Lava Types Eruption Style – All volcanoes are not the same Strength and Durability of Volcanic Rocks o Hazards Eruptions Pyroclasts Air Quality o Hot Spots At Subduction Zones o Volcanoes are composed of a lot of sediments too in subduction zones o Sequences of volcanos occur along a subdction zone Oceanic Subduction Zones creates a chain of islands (Japan / Aleutian Archipelago, Philipines) Continental Subduction Zones creates a chain of Mountains (Cascades) Types of Lava o Basaltic Lavas Flood Basalts Pahoehoe Looks like a think gel crawling on the floor Aa Sharp Escaping gas created vesicles of gas Caused by fast cooling of lava, not allowing gas to escape Pillow lava Erupted under water o Andesitic Lavas o Rhyolitic Lavas
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Lec5 - University of California, Berkeley Civil Engineering...

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