7 CNS and PNS.pdf - ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 13 ANATOMY...

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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYChapter 13 ANATOMY OF NERVOUS SYSTEMPowerPoint Image Slideshow
CENTRAL AND PERIPHERALNERVOUS SYSTEMCentral and Peripheral Nervous SystemThe structures of the PNS are referred to as ganglia and nerves, which can be seen asdistinct structures. The equivalent structures in the CNS are not obvious from thisoverall perspective and are best examined in prepared tissue under the microscope.
SPINAL CORD ANATOMYCervical enlargementLumbar enlargementConus medullarisCauda equinaFilum terminaleAnterior median fissurePosterior median sulcusCentral canal
SPINAL CORD ANATOMYFrom foramen magnum of skull to the L1 vertebraDivided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regionsIt is covered by three layers of meninges (connective tissue)Pia mater (innermost)Arachnoid mater (middle)Dura mater (outermost)
SPINAL CORD ANATOMYThe meninges create spacesEpidural spaceOutside dura materSubdural spaceBetween dura mater and arachnoid materSubarachnoid spaceBetween arachnoid mater and pia mater
ROOTS (WHERE SPINAL NERVES ENTER/EXITTHE SPINAL CORD)Dorsal (posterior) root ganglionsContain the cell bodies of sensory neuronsDorsal rootsContain the axons of sensory (afferent) neuronsVentral rootsContain the axons of motor (efferent) neuronsThe dorsal and ventral roots unite to form the spinal nerves
SPINAL CORD INTERNAL ANATOMYGray matterContains no myelinIntegrating centerWhite matterContains myelin (myelin is white in color)Carries signals up and down spinal cord
SPINAL CORD INTERNAL ANATOMYGray matterLocated in center of spinal cordContains three hornsPosterior (dorsal) hornAnterior (ventral) hornLateral hornPresent from T1-L1 (first thoracic vertebra to first lumbarvertebra)
SPINAL CORD INTERNAL ANATOMYCross-section of Spinal CordThe cross-section of a thoracic spinalcord segment shows the posterior,anterior, and lateral horns of gray matter,as well as the posterior, anterior, andlateral columns of white matter. LM × 40.(Micrograph provided by the Regents ofUniversity of Michigan Medical School ©2012)
SPINAL CORD INTERNAL ANATOMYWhite matterSurrounds gray matterMade of the anterior, lateral, and posterior whitecolumnsEach column is made of ascending anddescending tracts
SPINAL NERVES31 pairs of spinal nerves8 cervical (C1C8)12 thoracic (T1T12)5 lumbar(L1L5)5 sacral(S1S5)1 coccygealEach of these nerves has sensory and motor neurons

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