Political Science.docx - Joris SIKPA FINAL EXAMINATION INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL SCIENCE 1a A nation is a large group of people with strong bonds of

Political Science.docx - Joris SIKPA FINAL EXAMINATION...

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Joris SIKPA FINAL EXAMINATION- INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL SCIENCE 1a. A nation is a large group of people with strong bonds of identity - an "imagined community," a tribe on a grand scale. Ernest Renan, a late nineteenth century French scholar and ardent nationalist, argues that historical events uniquely fuse together the population of a given territory into a nation. These nations share "a soul" and memories of "endeavors, sacrifice, and devotion." Theorizing further about nations, Renan says they reinforce themselves in a "daily plebiscite" of a common will to live together 1b. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its territory, the area of jurisdiction or geographic boundaries; and finally, by its sovereignty. Machiavelli (1469-1527) defines the state as the central sovereign power and separates political action from moral and religious considerations. Jean Bodin (1529-1596), for his part, noted the existence of a public power playing the role of unifier of the social order. He conceived the State as the seat of sovereign power and, as such, he differentiated it from society. 1c. The legitimacy is a belief on the part of large numbers of people in a state that the existing governmental structure and/or the particular person in office should appropriately wield authority. 1d. The sovereignty is the ability of having the ultimate authority to make decisions within one's borders, without interference by other government. 1e. A civil society represent organizations outside of the state in which people act collectively. Modern civil society created by self-constitution, self-mobilization, laws, norms, subjective rights. 1f. Nationalism is the exaggerated pride in one's country or culture. It is also the belief that the nation is, or should be, the most basic principle of political organization. 1g. Political culture is the psychology of a nation regarding politics. 1h. A democracy is a form of government in which the people rule; can take place directly, through participation by the people in actual lawmaking, or indirectly through free elections in which the people choose representatives to make laws on their behalf. 1i. A totalitarian government is a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it. 1j. Political socialization is a lifelong process by which people form their ideas about politics and acquire political values. The family, educational system, peer groups, and the mass media all play a role. 1k. Political polarization is the strong division of a population based on political ideology.
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