Chapter 14: Variations in Sexual Behavior When is sexual behavior abnormal? •What is the statistical definition of abnormal? What is a weakness of using this definition? Rare or not practiced by many people; doesn’t give insight into psychological/social functioning of person who engages in the behavior •What is the sociobiological definition of abnormal? What is a weakness of using this definition? Violates the norms of society; dependent on specific society •What is the psychological definition of abnormal? What three criteria are part of this definition? Discomfort, inefficiency, and bizarreness •What eight paraphilias are recognized in the DSM-5? Fetishism, transvestic fetishism, sadism, masochism, pedophilia, voyeurism, froteurism, exhibitionism Fetishism •What characterizes a fetishistic disorder? A person’s sexual fixation on some object other than another human being and attachment of great erotic significance to that object •How can learning theory explain why some people develop fetishes? Classical conditioning; learned association between fetish object and sexual arousal •How can cognitive theory explain why some people develop fetishes? Fetishists have a serious cognitive distortion in that they perceive a nonconventional stimulus as erotic Cross-dressing •What is the difference between drag queens and female impersonators? Caricatures of gender roles vs entertainment •Why is it that sexual cross-dressing is almost exclusively exhibited by men? Cultural tolerance of women who wear masculine clothing/intolerance of men who wear feminine clothing, women’s clothing design is traditionally sexually erotic •What percentage of men report cross dressing and experiencing sexual arousal? 3% •According to a survey of cross-dressers by Doctor and Prince (1997), what are typical characteristics of cross-dressers? 87% heterosexual, 60% married, 65% college educated, 76% raised by both parents
•How do the wives and children of cross-dressers commonly respond to this? Most accepting, relationship with children undamaged •When does cross-dressing become problematic (i.e., a paraphilia)? When it becomes the only source of sexual gratification/an uncontrollable compulsion that causes distress in other areas of the person’s life Sadism and Masochism •What is a sexual sadist and masochist? Sadist: likes inflicting pain/suffering/humiliation on another person; masochist: likes it on themselves •What do the acronyms S-M, B-D, and D-S stand for? Sadism and masochism; bondage and discipline; dominance and submission •What are behaviors that people engage in within the BDSM community? Physical/psychological restraining, obedience and servitude, consensual exchange of power, etc •What are four “clusters” of BDSM that were identified by Santtila and colleagues? Hypermasculinity, administering and receiving pain, physical restriction, and humiliation •How is S-M like putting on a play?