biologyexam3notes - Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Eat for...

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Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Eat for fuel, raw materials (amino acids), and nutrients Digestion is an enzymatic hydrolysis to simpler subunits Groups of Heterotrophs o Nonphotosynthetic bacteria o Nonphotosynthetic protists o Fungi o Animals Carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores Intracellular digestion in paramecium o Food goes into oral groove, food vacuole meets lysosome, waste goes out anal pore Fungi o Saprobic o Parasitic o Mycorrhizae Animals o Humpback whales filer using a baleen ( suspension feeding ) o Caterpillar crawls through leaf and eats it ( substrate feeding ) o Mosquito drinking blood, ticks, spiders, hummingbirds ( fluid feeder ) o Rock python eating antelope ( bulk feeder ) All animals have insider digestion, not necessarily in the cell o Intracellular digestion - hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles. Vacuoles fuse with lysosomes. Sponges o Extracellular digestion - the breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous with the outside of the animal’s body o Gastrovascular cavity - digestive compartment with a single opening. Gastrodermis secretes digestive enzymes. o Hydra and Planaria digestion begins in the gastrovascular cavity and finishes intracellularly. ( intra and extracellular ) o Alimentary canal - a digestive tube extending between two openings, a mouth and an anus
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Begins specialization Crop - stores food Gizzard - grinding organ, mechanical digestion Intestines - breakdown food and absorb it Anus - garbage exits out o Humans digest extracellularly in gut Four parts of digestion: o Ingestion o Digestion- mechanical and chemical o Absorption- nutrient molecules enter body cells o Elimination In mammal, the digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and various accessory glands that secrete digestive juices through ducts in the canal (salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder) Peristalsis - alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the canal. How food is pushed along. Sphincters - ringlike valves at some junctions between specialized compartments Oral cavity o Front palate - hard palate. Bony o Back palate - soft palate. Muscular o Uvula o Cleft palate o Teeth 4 incisors, 2 cuspids, 4 bicuspids, 6 molars on top (x2 for bottom) Enamel - hardest and most mineralized part of the body Dentine - calcified body tissue underneath enamel Pulp - middle of tooth, made of living soft tissue and living cells o Saliva - for chemical breakdown, moisture, cleanliness, buffer, movement, and thiocyanate ion present acts as an anti- microbial agent and lysozyme o Salivary glands Parotid - by ears, over second molars, secretes watery saliva
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Sublingual gland- under tongue, secretes watery and mucous saliva Submandibular - under jaw, secretes watery and mucous saliva o In the mouth, salivary amylase breaks down starch and glycogen into disaccharide maltose o Bolus - ball of food in mouth Pharynx - throat region, opens up to esophagus and trachea (windpipe)
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This note was uploaded on 08/07/2009 for the course BY 124 taught by Professor Cusic during the Spring '08 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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biologyexam3notes - Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Eat for...

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