by 124 test 2 notes - Chapter 11 The Fungi Plants were...

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Chapter 11 The Fungi Plants were coming and onto land when fungus was already there Eukaryotic cells, but differ in nutritional mode, structural organization, reproduction and growth Are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients Fungi have exoenzymes ; absorptive rather than digestive o Exoenzymes break down complex molecules and then absorb the remaining smaller compounds Feeding modes: o Saprobic - feeds on dead organic material o Parasitic - feeds on living organisms o Mutualistic - mycorrhizae (symbiotic relationship with roots of plants in which hyphae wrap around the root increasing surface area, helping the plant with water and mineral uptake; fungus gets carbohydrates from the plant Haploid stage dominant Fungus are more related to animals than plants. Heterotrophic Cell wall made of chitin Hyphae - tubular, vegetative bodies Mycelium - the densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus Haustoria - a specialized hypha that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms Rhizoids - a long, tubular, single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground. Unlike roots, rhizoids are not composed of tissues, lacked specialized conducting cells, and do not play a primary role in water and mineral absorption Septae - wall-like structures Coenocytic - cells lacking septae Dikaryon - a cell where + and – nuclei are present Plasmogamy - the fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two individuals; occurs as one stage of syngamy (fertilization) Karyogamy - the fusion of two nuclei, as part of syngamy (fertilization) Heterokaryotic stage - different nuclei remaining in separate parts of the same mycelium Sexual reproduction happens when environmental conditions change PHYLUM CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA
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o Are unique among fungi in that they have flagellated spores called zoospores o Mostly aquatic; have flagella; chitin in cell wall’ absorptive; coenocytic hyphae PHYLUM ZYGOMYCOTA o Black bread mold o Forms a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction; this structure is freeze resistant and resistant to dessication PHYLUM ASCOMYCOTA o Sac/cup fungi o Main fungus in lichens o Yeasts (unicellular) reproduce by budding o Asexual ( Imperfect ) reproduction results in conidia o Sexual ( Perfect) reproduction results in the formation of an ascocarp (fruiting body) containing tube-like asci PHYLUM BASIDIOMYCOTA o Asexual reproduction is much less common than in other fungal Phyla o Sexual reproduction results in the formation of basidiospores produced on club-like structures called basidia PHYLUM DEUTEROMYCOTA o Imperfect fungi; no documented sex stage LICHENS o Fungal layer helps acquire minerals; algal layer provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis and moisture
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INVERTABRATES Eukaryotic, heterotrophic, stores carbohydrates as glycogen, sexual reproduction is most common, no cell wall Structural protein is collagen Embryonic
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