BY123 chapter 2 - • Molecule-two or more atoms held...

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Chapter Two: Atoms, Molecules, and Bonds Matter - anything that takes up space and has mass Element - substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions Compound - substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio Atom - the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Mass number - sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Isotopes - atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons Potential energy - energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure Kinetic energy - the energy of motion Orbital -the three-dimensional space in where an electron is found 90% of the time Covalent bond - the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
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Unformatted text preview: • Molecule-two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds • Electronegativity- the attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond • Nonpolar covalent bond- covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally • Polar covalent bond- electrons in a covalent bond are not shared equally • Ionic bond- attraction between cations and anions • Energy level- correlated with its average distance from the nucleus • Ground state- atom without energy • Excited state- atom that received enough energy to have an electron jump from one energy level to a higher one • Single bond- a pair of shared electrons • Double bond- two pairs of shared electrons...
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This note was uploaded on 08/07/2009 for the course BY 123 taught by Professor Cusic during the Spring '07 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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BY123 chapter 2 - • Molecule-two or more atoms held...

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