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by123 chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Organic Molecules Polymer long...

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Chapter 5: Organic Molecules Polymer - long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds Monomer - building blocks of polymers Dehydration reaction - reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule (how monomers are connected) Enzymes - specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells Carbohydrates - sugars and polymers of sugars Functions - 1. Energy and short term energy storage 2. Form structural components of cells o Monosaccharides generally have molecular formula of (CH 2 O) 3-8 e.g. C 6 H 12 H 6 o In aqueous solutions, most sugars (like glucose) form rings and not linear chains o Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage o Glycosidic linkage , a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction o Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. o Starch- polysaccharide , a polymer of glucose monomers, as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, which include chloroplast. Plants store starch for energy. Plants use hydrolosis to break starch into glucose so the sugar can be withdrawn. Animals also have enzymes that break down starch (available in potatoes, rice, etc) to use for energy. Glucose monomers in starch are in the alpha configuration (STORAGE POLYPEPTIDE) o Angle of linkages between glucose in starch (number 1 carbon to number 4 carbon), like in maltose, and attribute to the helical shape. Amylose, the simplest form of starch, is unbranched. Amylopectin is a branched polymer with 1-6 linkages at the branch points. o Glycogen - a polysaccharide that animals store, a polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched. Stored in liver and muscle cells. Hydrolysis of glycogen in these cells release glucose when the demand for sugar increases. The glycogen stores are depleted in about a day. Glucose in glycogen is in alpha configuration. (STORAGE POLYPEPTIDE) o Cellulose- a polysaccharide that is the major component of a plants cell walls. Glucose monomers in cellulose are in the beta configuration, making every other glucose monomer upside down with respect to its neighbors. Cellulose molecule is straight. (STRUCTURAL POLYPEPTIDE) o Most organisms do not possess the enzymes to digest cellulose. In humans, cellulose is insoluble fiber.
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