by123 chapter 6 - Chapter Six: The Cell Cell Theory 1. 2....

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Chapter Six: The Cell Cell Theory 1. All living matter is composed of cells 2. The chemical reactions of living organisms take place in cells 3. Cells arise from other cells 4. Cells contain the hereditary information of the organisms of which they are a part of, and this information is passed on from parent cell to daughter cell. Light microscope - visible light is passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses. The lenses bend the light in such a way that the image of the specimen is magnified as it is projected into the eye. Magnification - ratio of an object’s image size to its to its real size Contrast - accentuates differences in parts Resolution - the measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two points o Resolution depends on the quality of the lens and wavelength of light The shorter the wavelength of light, the better the resolving power Electron microscope - beams of electrons instead of beams of light o Electron beams have a shorter wavelength than light beams Cytosol - semifluid, jellylike substance inside the plasma membrane in which organelles are found Organelles move around Prokaryotic cells - have DNA concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed, called the nucleoid o Cytoplasm- interior of a prokaryotic cell; also a term used for the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell o Mycoplasmas- smallest bacteria; don’t hae a cell wall (antibiotic usually attack cell wall) o Bacteria have 1 copy of chromosome in a circular shape o Plasma membrane + cell wall o Ribosomes that are not membrane bound o PROKARYOTIC CELLS DO NOT HAVE MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES o Flagella- is not composed of the same stuff as flagella in eukaryotic cells
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o Fimbriae (or pilli)- 1). Help bacteria hold on 2.) Used to change genetic material o Capsule- jellylike outer coating of many prokaryotes (used for protection) o Eukaryotic cells - have DNA in the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane o Larger than prokaryotic cells Nucleus - contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell (some genes are located in mitochondria and chloroplasts) o Nuclear envelope - encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. Double membrane, each a lipid bilayer. Has pores with an intricate protein structure called a pore complex lining each pore, regulating the entry and exit of most proteins and RNAs, as well as large complexes of macromolecules o Nuclear envelope is lined by the nuclear lamina, a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope o Chromosomes - structures that carry genetic information; located in the nucleus. Made of chromatin, a complex of proteins and DNA o Nucleolus - ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized from instructions in the DNA; and proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with the rRNA into large and small ribosomal units. These units then exit into the cytoplasm through the nuclear
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This note was uploaded on 08/07/2009 for the course BY 123 taught by Professor Cusic during the Spring '07 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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by123 chapter 6 - Chapter Six: The Cell Cell Theory 1. 2....

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