by123 chapter 8

by123 chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Metabolism Metabolism-...

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Chapter 8: Metabolism Metabolism - totality of an organism’s chemical reactions Metabolic pathway - a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway) Catabolic pathways - metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. Cellular respiration, in which the sugar glucose and other organic fuels are broken down in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide and water Anabolic pathways- metabolic pathway that consumes energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones. Synthesis of protein from amino acids. Bioenergetics - the study of how energy flows through living organisms Energy - the capacity to do work; to cause a change Kinetic energy - relative motion of objects Potential energy - energy that matter possess because of its location or structure Heat , or thermal energy - kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules Thermodynamics - the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter o System (the matter under study) and surroundings (everything outside the system) o An isolated system is unable to exchange either energy or matter with its surroundings o In an open system , energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings o FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS - energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be destroyed; principle of conservation of energy o SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS - energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe; for a process to occur spontaneously, it must increase the entropy of the universe o Entropy - measure of disorder Free energy
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by123 chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Metabolism Metabolism-...

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