by123 chapter 9 - Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration ATP...

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ATP Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration Heterotrophs oxides glucose Oxidation- the loss of electrons from one substance Reduction- the addition of electrons to another substance During cellular respiration, energy is passed down slowly. Glucose and other organic fuels are broken down in a series of steps, each one catalyzed by an enzyme. At key steps, electrons are stripped from the glucose. NAD+ is an electron acceptor, and functions as an oxidizing agent during respiration o NAD+ traps electrons from glucose because enzymes called dehydrogenases remove a pair of hydrogen atoms from a substrate, and the enzyme delivers the 2 electrons along with 1 proton to its coenzyme NAD+. The other proton is released as a hydrogen ion into the surrounding solution Electron transport chain- consists of a number of molecules, mostly proteins, built into the inner membrane of mitochondria or eukaryotic cells and the plasma membrane of aerobically respiring prokaryotes. Electrons removed from glucose are shuttled by NADH to the “top”, higher-energy end of the chain. At the “bottom” lower-energy end, O 2 captures these electrons along with hydrogen nuclei (H+) forming water. (oxygen pulls the electrons down the chain because it is more electronegative) o Electron transfer from NADH to oxygen is an exergonic reaction Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle are catabolic pathways that break down glucose and other organic fuels Phosphorylation- adding a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP Oxidative phosphorylation- the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain’ the third major stage of cellular respiration Substrate-level phosphorylation- the formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism
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Plants and animals both do cellular respiration
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GLYCOLYSIS- occurs in cytosol o Start with a 6-carbon glucose
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This note was uploaded on 08/07/2009 for the course BY 123 taught by Professor Cusic during the Spring '07 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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by123 chapter 9 - Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration ATP...

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