by123 chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis...

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Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis- the conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes Autotrophs- sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other living beings Heterotrophs- an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them The first cells performed anaerobic glycolysis only. Then cyanobacteria started releasing O2, and that opened the way of evolution by allowing aerobic cellular respiration. Cyanobacteria and the oxygen it gave off let things live on land, not just in water. 6CO 2 + 12 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O + 6O 2 ΔG is positive in photosynthesis ΔG is negative in cellular respiration Although photosynthesis has the reversed chemical equation as cellular respiration, chloroplasts do not synthesize sugars by simply reversing the steps of respiration. CHLOROPLASTS o Chlorophyll- the green pigment located in thylakoid membranes. Light absorbed by the chlorophyll drive the synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast o Mesophyll- tissue in the interior of the leaf, where most chloroplasts are found o Stomata- pores by which carbon dioxide enters the leaf and oxygen exits. On the bottom of the leaf o Veins- how water absorbed by the roots is delivered to the leaves. Leaves also use veins to transport sugar to the roots and other non-photosynthetic parts of the plant o Stroma- the dense fluid within the chloroplast o Thylakoids- elaborate system of interconnected membranous sacs o Grana- stacks of thylakoids that collect light “solar panels” White light is a mixture of all wavelengths of visible light. Visible light drives photosynthesis.
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Pigment- substances that absorbs visible light. Chlorophyll absorbs violet-blue and red light, reflecting green. Chlorophyll a- a photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical Chlorophyll b- an accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
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