by123 chapter 13

by123 chapter 13 - Chapter 13: Meiosis Asexual...

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Chapter 13: Meiosis Asexual reproduction- a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring o Single-celled eukaryotic organisms reproduce asexually by mitotic cell division o A hydra reproduces by budding o Each tree in a circle of redwoods growing from a single parent tree, whose stump is in the center of the circle Sexual reproduction- two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents Life cycle- the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring Locus- a gene’s specific location along the length of a chromosome Each human somatic cell has 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes differ in size, in the positions of their centromeres, and in the pattern of colored bands produced by certain stains. o There are two chromosomes of each 23 types. o Karyotype- ordered display of chromosomes by size and shape. Shows homologous chromosomes easily o Homologous chromosomes- two chromosomes composing a pair have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern. Both chromosomes of each pair carry genes controlling the same inherited characters. X and Y chromosomes- chromosomes that determine sex
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by123 chapter 13 - Chapter 13: Meiosis Asexual...

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