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Chap3 - Chapter 3 Digital Logic Structures Electronic ones...

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Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Digital Logic Structures
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Electronic ones and zeros Electronic ones and zeros An electronic switch like a light switch  switches between insulator (open circuit) and conductor (closed  circuit)  We can call the presence of a voltage “1” and its absence “0”
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Transistors Transistors An electronic switch that is open or closed   between the  source  and the  drain  depending on  the voltage on the  gate .
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Source Drain G N Open (insulating) if gate is “off” = 0 Closed (conducting) if gate is “on” = 1 P Open (insulating) if gate is “on” = 1 Closed (conducting) if gate is “off” = 0 Drain Source G CMOS Transistors CMOS Transistors CMOS = Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Standard type for digital applications Two versions: P-type (positive) and N-type (negative) P and N-type transistors operate in inverse modes
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2.9 v 0 v out in In  Out 0 1 1 0 Inverter Gate Inverter Gate When the input is on (in =  high voltage), the P-type  transistor is  open  and the N- type is  closed , so the output  is off (out = low voltage). Vice-versa: when the Input is  off (in = low voltage), the  output is connected to the  high voltage. P N
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NOR Gate NOR Gate A B C 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 C A B 2.9 v 0 v 0 v P N P N
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NOR Gate - Operation NOR Gate - Operation 2.9 v 0 v 0 v P N P  0 v  0 v 2.9 v N N 0 v 0 v P N P N 2.9 v 2.9 v 0 v 0 v 2.9 v 0 v 0 v P N 2.9 v 2.9 v 0 v P
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OR Gate OR Gate D  B  C A B C D 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 = a NOR gate followed by an inverter
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NAND & AND Gates NAND & AND Gates A B C D 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 NAND
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Logic Gates & Symbols Logic Gates & Symbols Note that gates can have more than 2 inputs.
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De Morgan’s Law De Morgan’s Law not(A and B) = (not A) or (not B) not(A or B) = (not A) and (not B) A and B A or B = A or B A and B =
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