chem lecture 2

chem lecture 2 - Atoms: The Quantum World Chemistry 6A 1...

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Chemistry 6A 1 Atoms: The Quantum World Atoms: The Quantum World
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Chemistry 6A Key Concepts: Review Key Concepts: Review What is energy? What is matter? How do energy and matter interact? 2
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Chemistry 6A 3 What is Energy? What is Energy? E TOTAL = E k + E p Kinetic (E k ) Results from motion of objects E k = ½ mv 2 (translational motion) Magnitude depends on velocity Potential (E p ) Results from a force between objects Magnetic, gravitational, electrostatic Magnitude depends on relative position and type of force The SI unit of Energy is the The SI unit of Energy is the joule (J). joule (J). 1 J = 1 kg 1 J = 1 kg m 2 s -2 -2 “The ability to do work”
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Chemistry 6A 4 Conservation of Energy Conservation of Energy E p E p > E K E K > E p Heat, Sound When isolated from external influences, the total energy of an When isolated from external influences, the total energy of an object or system is constant. object or system is constant.
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Chemistry 6A 5 Energy Assumes Many Forms Energy Assumes Many Forms Light Sound Wind (Motion) Chemical Nuclear “Heat” or Thermal Electrical
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Chemistry 6A Demonstration: FIAT LUX! Demonstration: FIAT LUX! The Oxidation of Sugar (Sucrose) The Oxidation of Sugar (Sucrose) 6
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Chemistry 6A 7 Matter - It Matter - It s s Element Element al! Or is it? al! Or is it? Matter: occupies space and has mass Mixtures Pure Substances Homogeneous Heterogeneous Physically separable? Chromatography Crystallization Distillation Compounds Elements NO NO YES YES Uniform properties? Optical microscopy YES YES NO NO YES YES NO NO Chemically separable?
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Chemistry 6A 8 Substances: Elements, Compounds Substances: Elements, Compounds Pure substance (an idealization): Does not change its chemical characteristics upon exhaustive attempts of purification. Element: A substance which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances (elements) by ordinary chemical or physical means (obsolete definition). Exemplars: hydrogen, carbon, oxygen. Compound: A compound is a substance that can be decomposed into simpler substances (different elements) by chemical processes. Exemplars: water (hydrogen and oxygen), carbon dioxide (carbon and oxygen). Atomic interpretation: A pure substance possesses a structure that is composed of a definite number and kinds of atoms that are connected in a specific manner. Atomic interpretation: An element is a substance that contains only one kind of atom . Exemplars: Hydrogen (H) atoms , carbon atoms (C), oxygen atoms (O). Atomic interpretation: A compound is a substance that contains atoms of two or more chemical elements. Exemplars: CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, H 2 O 2
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9 Gas: expands to fill the vessel it occupies (fluid) Liquid: fixed volume but variable shape Solid: fixed volume and shape (rigid) All substances exist in three different physical states (or phases ). States of (Bulk) Matter
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This note was uploaded on 08/07/2009 for the course CHEM 6A taught by Professor Pomeroy during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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chem lecture 2 - Atoms: The Quantum World Chemistry 6A 1...

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