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chem lecture 7

chem lecture 7 - Let's Recap Multi-Electron Atoms Lecture 6...

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Chemistry 6A Let’s Recap: Multi-Electron Atoms Lecture 6 Orbital approximations for multi-electron atoms Energy of orbitals is dependent on both n and l Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund’s Rule • Z eff and radius (atomic vs. ionic) Now, to finish Atomic Properties … And then, the Chemical Bond: The distributions of electrons in atoms, molecules, and solids determine nearly all their physical and chemical properties, with structure and reactivity being those of greatest interest to chemists.
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Chemistry 6A 2 Each atomic configuration below (i – iii) violates one of the following: Hund’s rule, aufbau principle, or Pauli exclusion principle. Which answer correctly matches the configuration with the principle it is violating? (a) (i) violates Hund’s rule; (ii) violates the aufbau principle; (iii) violates the Pauli principle. (b) (ii) violates Hund’s rule; (i) violates the aufbau principle; (iii) violates the Pauli principle. (c) (iii) violates Hund’s rule; (ii) violates the aufbau principle; (i) violates the Pauli principle (d) (i) violates Hund’s rule; (iii) violates the aufbau principle; (ii) violates the Pauli principle. (e) (ii) violates Hund’s rule; (iii) violates the aufbau principle; (i) violates the Pauli principle. ( i) 2 p ___ ___ ___ (ii) 2 p ___ ___ ___ (iii) 2 p ___ ___ ___ 2 s ___ 2 s ___ 2 s ___ 1 s ___ 1 s ___ 1 s ___ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↓↓ ↑ ↓
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Chemistry 6A [Ar]3 d 10 4 s 1 4 p 4 5 s 1 is the electron configuration corresponding to an excited state of … (a) Selenium (b) Bromine (c) Arsenic (d) Tellerium (e) This is not an excited state.
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Chemistry 6A Which of the following isoelectronic species has the largest radius? (a) Ne (b) F- (c) Mg 2+ (d) Na + (e) O 2-
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Chemistry 6A 5
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Chemistry 6A 6
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Chemistry 6A 7
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Chemistry 6A 8 E n = -(Z eff 2 /n 2 )Ry energy of electron in orbital n The energy needed to remove an electron from the outermost occupied shell depends on both E eff and r eff . E eff increases and r eff decreases (both increase IE) as one goes across a period. Exceptions are due to special stability of subshells. E eff decreases and r eff increases (both decrease IE) as one goes down a group. Conclusions from experimental IE values: An abrupt change in IE in going along a period or group of the periodic table indicates a change in the valence electron shell or subshell.
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Chemistry 6A 9
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Chemistry 6A 10
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Chemistry 6A 11
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Chemistry 6A 12
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Chemistry 6A 13
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Chemistry 6A Which process is most energetically favorable (i.e. most exothermic), assuming comparison on a ‘per mol of atom’ basis? A. Li Li + + e - B. Li + e - Li - - C. F F + + e - D. F + e - F - - E. F- + e - F 2-
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Chemistry 6A Metals and semi-metals in the p block of periods 4, 5 and 6 typically form two types of cations corresponding to either the loss of only the p subshell valence electrons or both the p and s subshell electrons . In some cases the IE is significantly lower for the p electrons than for the s electrons, and the cation corresponding to loss of only the p electrons is formed … Example: tin (IV) oxide is favored over tin(II) oxide.
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