chem lecture 11

chem lecture 11 - 1st Year THE ^ CHEMISTRY STUDENT...

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Chemistry 6A 1 st Year THE ^ CHEMISTRY STUDENT EXPERIENCE Strategies for Success and Engagement Wednesday, November 12, 2008 7:00 PM – 9:00 PM 1205 Natural Science Building (Main Auditorium) Making the Transition from High School or CC Study Methods: What’s Effective (and What’s Not!)? Test-taking Strategies The Big Picture 1
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Chemistry 6A 2 If curve A represents Br 2 , then curve B can represent: (a) Cl 2 (b) I 2 (c) It’s not possible to predict.
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Chemistry 6A Which of the following is a planar molecule or ion? 3
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Chemistry 6A 4 Using VSEPR shapes, how can we determine if a molecule is polar or non-polar? If we use a quantum mechanical description of covalent bonding in terms of atomic orbital overlap, what additional information do we gain? When is it necessary to invoke the use of ‘hybridized’ atomic orbitals?
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Chemistry 6A 5 Use electron-group geometries to distribute electron groups (usually 2 - 7) around a central atom …
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Chemistry 6A 6 Regions of high electron concentration around a central atom
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Chemistry 6A 7 A = central atom X n = n atoms (same or different) bonded to central atom E = m lone pairs on central atom
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Chemistry 6A 8 All molecular shapes are derived from the six electron arrangements. Take note of the bond angles!
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Chemistry 6A 9 1. Derive the Lewis structure of a molecule. If there are resonance structures, pick any one. 2. Determine the number of electron groups around the central atom (A) , and identify them as either bonding or non-bonding pairs . Treat a multiple bond as a single unit of high electron density. 3. Establish the correct electron geometry around each atom, by placing electron pairs as far apart as possible. 4. Examine the placement of atoms and identify the molecular shape (according to AX n E m ). 5. Optimize bond angles for molecules with lone pairs on the central atom(s).
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Chemistry 6A
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Chemistry 6A 11 Molecular geometry : AX 2 Linear RULE: Double and triple bonds are similar to single bonds in terms of their spatial requirements
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Chemistry 6A 12 RULE: Maximum separation of bonding pairs is preferred Molecular geometry : AX 3 Trigonal planar (F—B—F angle = 120°)
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Chemistry 6A 13 Molecular geometry : AX 3 Trigonal planar (H—C—H angle ~ 120°) RULE: Double and triple bonds are similar to single bonds in terms of their spatial requirements
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Chemistry 6A 14 (H—C—H angle = 109.5°) Molecular geometry : AX 4 Tetrahedral Electron pairs are arranged tetrahedrally
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Chemistry 6A 15 (Cl—P—Cl angles = 90, 120, 180°) Molecular geometry : AX 5 Trigonal bipyramidal Electron pairs are arranged in a trigonal bipyramidal fashion
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Chemistry 6A 16 (F—S—F angles = 90, 180°) Molecular geometry : AX 6 Octahedral Electron pairs are arranged octahedrally
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chem lecture 11 - 1st Year THE ^ CHEMISTRY STUDENT...

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