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Unformatted text preview: connected to the other population of membrane proteins. • Integral proteins penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer, often completely spanning the membrane (a transmembrane protein). • Where they contact the core, they have hydrophobic regions with nonpolar amino acids, often coiled into alpha helices. • Where they are in contact with the aqueous environment, they have hydrophilic regions of amino acids. • One role of membrane proteins is to reinforce the shape of a cell and provide a strong framework. • On the cytoplasmic side, some membrane proteins connect to the cytoskeleton. • On the exterior side, some membrane proteins attach to the fibers of the extracellular matrix. • Membranes have distinctive inside and outside faces. • The two layers may differ in lipid composition, and proteins in the membrane have a clear direction....
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