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Unformatted text preview: Waterloo SOS: Students Offering Support STAT 231 Final ExamAID Review Package Tutor: Michaelangelo Finistauri Course Coordinator: Anton Markov Email: anton.markov@waterloosos.com Students Offering Support national sponsors: STAT 231 Review Guide Data Types Discrete  from a countable or countably infinite set Continuous  from an uncountable set Categorical  Nonnumerical data from a set (like month) Binary  True/False or 0/1 values Ordinal  data which implies some form of order Grouped/Frequency  records number of observations of an event Transformations Must preserve order, translation and scale a.k.a. affine are of the form Y = aX + b . Ranking will order data by a criteria, numerical analysis on the data may be irrelevant. Log and square root transforms are variancestabilizing transforms. All tranforms must be monotonic. PPDAC Problem  statement of intentions of investigation Aspect categorizes the main focus of the problem * Descriptive focus is to determine particular characteristics of target population * Causative focus is to see if causal link exists between two variates * Predictive determining outcome for a particular variate for a given unit Plan description of procedures to implement the study Data collecting the data outlined in the problem by means of the plan Analysis manipulation of data via statitsical methods Conclusion relating analyses to problem Population A set of units Target Study Sample Unit Target Population set of all units which the problem is investigating Study Population set of all units which may be included in investigation Sample Population set of all units which are included in investigation Sample Size the number of elements in the sample population Unit a single element of the previous sets Errors 1 STAT 231 Review Guide Study Error the difference between values of an attribute for the study and the target populations, a ( P Study ) a ( P Target ). Sample Error the difference between values of an attribute for the sample and the study populations, a ( P Sample ) a ( P Study ). Terminology Variate characteristic of a single unit Attribute function on variates of a single unit or group of units (i.e. averages) Process a population where time of measurement is relevant Experimental Plan a plan with an experimental aspect, some variates are controlled Observational Plan a plan with an observational aspect, no variates are controlled Outlier data that may not appear to match trends with other data Bias an outside source of systematic error which applies to most, if not all, data (i.e. Not random) Averages & Variance given a set of n data,...
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 Spring '08
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