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Bio2 Lecture 16

Bio2 Lecture 16 - Bio2 Lecture 16 Skeletal digestive immune...

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Bio2 Lecture 16 3/22/05 Skeletal, digestive, immune system, respiratory system will be on test 2 Slides available online, rutgersonline.net, press login, enter net id and password, ecompanion website, biology 102 document sharing Vitamins and Minerals Nutrition - 3 types - Carbohydrates o Includes simple sugars (glucose, maltose, you get from fruits like apple, and an apple is good because it has fiber, vitamins and minerals o Not only do you get simple carbohydrates, you also get dietary fiber, and nutrients). o Complex carbohydrates are polysaccharides, these are not necessarily better, some advantages it has to a simple sugar is storage, takes longer for it to be broken down - Proteins o Includes foods such as meat o Meat is a complete protein because you get all 20 amino acids from it. o There are 9 essential amino acids, and this means you have to get it from your diet o Not so developed countries cant afford meat so they get incomplete protein from plants - Lipids – polyunsaturated, and saturated o Saturated is solid at room temp o Unsaturated is liquid o Unsaturated is better for you o Steroids – includes such things as cholesterol, and it is actually good, it goes to cell membrane, but bad cholesterol will go and clog arteries, it is low density lipoproteins, good are the high density ones. Vitamins - Organic compounds – these are made of carbon - Small amounts, milligrams or micrograms, used in body in small amounts - Components of coenzymes, these help the enzymes speedup, so they are non- proteins - Niacin – in order to make NAD and NADH, and is water soluble - Vitamin A – fat soluble, good for vision, creation of rhodopsin - Vitamin K – fat soluble, produced in intestines, produced by bacteria, and we use this vitamin for blood clotting? - If you have a lot of water soluble vitamin it will just get excreted, if you have a lot of excess fat soluble vitamins it will be stored as fat, and much more serious than if you had excess of water soluble vitamins
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Minerals - Inorganic compounds - Can be in large amounts or trace amounts, by large we mean like 10 micrograms - Components of body tissues and fluids - Calcium will be found in large amounts, as will sodium for sodium potassium pumps - Iron we need in trace amounts - Sulfur we use in large amounts as well, sulfur creates proteins, the disulfide bridges Circulation - There are many different types of circulation systems - Hydra and platyhelminthes don’t have circulatory systems - These use diffusion, circulatory system has tubes, in these two organisms they have gastrovascular cavity, and it absorbs nutrition through absorption - Uses gastrovascular cavity as digestive system as well as a pseudo circulatory system - Nutrients pass through out the body through movement, them actually moving - Grasshopper and mollusk have enclosed circulatory system - Organs bathed in blood - It has aorta, and also blood vessels running off of it but they don’t connect to any organs, they basically dump hemolymph onto organs - It gets oxygen through sphericals and traccea -
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