Bio2 Lecture 22

Bio2 Lecture 22 - Bio2 Lecture 22 4/12/05 Population...

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Bio2 Lecture 22 4/12/05 Population Genetics and Microevolution - Review The source of al new alleles is: c) mutation The proportion of alleles in a population does not change if there is/are a) random mating The raw material for evolution: Variation What is nearly powerless by itself to change populations, but immensely powerful when combine with natural selection: Mutation If the fre1ueny of the dominant allele for a trait in a population is 0.7 what then is the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype: 0.09 (q^2 = 0.3, then square root it) Name two kinds of genetic drift, and cite an example of each Founder effect – starlings in N.A. Genetic bottleneck – northern elephant seal MICROEVLUTION – small changes, leading to speciation MACROEVOLUTION – Large changes, beyond species level, grand changes, long periods of time 5 conditions necessary for H-W Genetic equilibrium 1. No mutations 2. No migration 3. Population size very large 4. Mating is random 5. No selection Sex is almost always non-random: - Assortive mating – mating between phenotypically similar individuals - Inbreding – mating between species of the same family - For corn there is a large yield in corn yield when inbreeding occurs Natural Dispersal
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- Prior to mating members of one sex move away from the area where they were born - Birds femalesusually disperse - Mammals males usually disperse Natural Selection - The differential reproduction of genetypes - Process by which some individuals are more successful than others in surviving - Natural selection acts on individuals o Stabilizing – most common, selection favors intermediate phenotypes promotes uniformity Most common, chooses for the average joe Lots of types of dif butterflies, one type has a color that is very similar to the tree it rests on, the others don’t, fitness is highest in the center with the color that matches bark The ones on outside are lost after time It is squeezing squeezing squeezing, to stabilize
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This note was uploaded on 08/10/2009 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Brey during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Bio2 Lecture 22 - Bio2 Lecture 22 4/12/05 Population...

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