Bio2 Lecture final review

Bio2 Lecture final review - Bio2 Lecture Final Review Katz...

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Bio2 Lecture Final Review Katz Final exam 37. trophoblast, mammalian, how old is it and inner cell mass that is about to go through gastrulation, 10 days Reproduction - Know anatomy of male and female, structures of gonads (vagina, penis) - In seminiferous tubules, it goes spermatagonia, prim spermatocyte, 2ndary spermatocyte, spermatid - Hormonal regulation o Know roles of GNRH, FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, estrogen - Luteal phase, part of menstrual cycle, corpus luteum produces progesterone and estrodial (an estrogen), they has an effect on uterus - Look at table in text and be able to match up hormone with organ that produces it or major function of it - Where does steroid hormones act on cell, where protein hormones act in a cell o Steroid acts in nucleus, affects DNA translation o Protein acts on cell membrane - Cell to cell communication, know concept and cytoplasmic determinants can influence development of that cell - Role that yolk plays, influence on whether or not al the cells go through divisions, etc, and rate of cell mitosis/division - Gastrulation and development of body plan, and formation of primary germ layers - Blocks to polyspermy, sequence of 2 mechanisms, fast block or depolarization, and slow block, migration of cortical granules, cortical reaction - Endocrine, key of endocrinology, is how anterior pituitary is regulated o Posterior pituitary is part of nervous system, extension of brain tissue, and has neurons from hypothalamus, and they produce 2 hormones, oxytocin, and ADH, under appropriate conditions they are released from axon terminals in anterior pituitary Oxytocin – conditions that cause it to be released is milk, baby crying, neuro endocrine reflex, comes in on neural side and reaction on endocrine side ADH – anti-diuretic, kidney absorbs more water, de-hydration will cause it, if your going to smoke drink o Anterior pituitary Neurons in hypothalamus produces substances called inhibitory or releasing hormones, released from axon terminals into portal veins or vessels and you have anterior pituitary release of FSH LH GH TSH
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Prolactin ACTH Know target tissue of each of these - Negative feedback, how do secretion of hormones get regulated, its like a thermostat, - As estrogen levels increase you have a positive feedback on LH, estrogen can have a positive feedback on LH before ovulation - Mature follicle is what ovulates, oocyte is what is released, corpus luteum is what is formed by follicle - Fibril elastic – bulls, vascular muscular – humans - Hormonal regulation on blood glucose, 2 that we need to know o Insulin – causes blood sugar level to go down o Glucagons – causes blood sugar level to go up - Function of leydig cell produces testosterone, outside seminiferous tubules Breille Respiration - 2 types, aerobic and anerobic, main thing is to produce ATP, you have glucose and oxygen - You need glycolysis - Oxygen comes in CO2 goes out, diaphragm contracting, pulls in air, and a negative pressure, talking about movement of gases, from high concentration to
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