Biology Exam #2 Notes
Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago, reducing atmosphere, abiotic synthesis, Oparin-Haldane, Miller-Urey,
prebiotic soup, ribozyme, RNA world, autotroph/heterotrophy, endosymbiosis, homology, homoplasy, taxon,
taxonomy, systematic, phylogeny, cladistics, clade, parsimony, synapomorphy, plesiomorphy, monophyletic,
paraphyletic, Linnaeus, Kingdom to Species, binomial, three domains. Virus genome, cpsid, bacteriophage.
Archaea [halophile, thermophile, methanogens], peptidoglycan: Gram positive, lipopolysaccharide is Gram
negative, cynobacteria, heterocysts, nitrogen fixation, chlorophyll A, plastid.
Origin of life
Viruses and prokaryotes
Conditions on early life
Earth is ~4.6 billion years
Atmosphere had little free oxygen
Included carbon dioxide, water, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen
Maybe also NH
Nothing rusts, not a lot of oxygen
Life could never evolve
Requirements for chemical evolution to produce life
Absence of oxygen -> why?
Oxidation destroys organics -> therefore, reducing atmosphere
Energy -> what kind? What for??
Chemical “building blocks” -> what kind? Where from?