Biology 102 Notes Final Exam

Biology 102 Notes Final Exam - Respiration I. Two Types a....

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Respiration I. Two Types a. Cellular respiration i. Glucose + O 2 CO 2 + energy b. Organismic Respiration i. O 2 body and it’s cells ii. Body and cells give off CO 2 II. Ideal respiratory medium is air, not water a. This is because there is more oxygen in the air and it takes less energy to ventilate i. Ventilation -mechanism for moving the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface III. Ideal respiratory surface a. Lots of surface area-increases opportunity for gas exchange b. Thin walls-allow for easy diffusion c. Moist-O 2 and CO 2 must be dissolved in order to diffuse across the respiratory surface d. Should be lots of blood vessels IV. 4 major respiratory surfaces a. Body surface i. Mollusks, annelids, some amphibians ii. Animals should be small because small animals tend to have a large surface to volume ration iii. Low metabolic rate iv. If animal is terrestrial, it must live in a moist environment and/or secrete mucus b. Tracheal tubes i. Insects, some other arthropods ii. These systems have spiracles = openings in the body surface iii. Spiracles lead to tracheal tubes iv. Tracheal tubes end in tracheoles = fluid-filled terminals, where direct exchange of gases with the cells takes place
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v. Ventilation by body movements or tracheal tube movements c. Gills i. Mainly in aquatic animals ii. Chordates-usually internal gills 1. H 2 O goes into mouth and out of gills iii. Operculum 1. Covers gills in most bony fish
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2. Protects and ventilates 3. None in sharks so they must swim continuously iv. Counter current exchange 1. Maximizes the difference in oxygen concentration between blood and the water 2. Greater than 80% of oxygen in water is removed 3. Gradient: Oxygen always goes from water blood v. Con-current flow 1. Only about 50% of oxygen in water is removed 2. Gradient would be switched 3. This doesn’t exist in nature vi. CO 2 moves in the opposite direction, from blood water d. Lungs
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Vertebrate Lungs I. Salamander a. Has simple sacs II. Frog b. Has increased surface area c. Gulps air-no diaphragm muscle d. Forces air down with mouth and throat muscle III. Reptiles e. Has an even more increased surface area f. Still simple
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IV. Birds g. Lungs have extensions call air sacs -act like bellows (instruments or machines that by alternate expansion and contraction draws in air through a valve or orifice and expels it through a tube) -usually 9 air sacs h. Advantages of air sacs i. Make birds light (weight) ii. Dissipate heat, which is associated with birds’ high metabolic rate i. Parabrochi -thin-walled ducts in the lungs of birds; gases are exchanged across their walls i. Flying birds have about 1,800 ii. Non-flying birds have about 400
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j. 2 cycles of inhalation and exhalation i. 1 st cycle-air into posterior air sac exhale into lungs ii. 2 nd cycle-air into anterior air sac exhale into lungs iii. Lungs-where the oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange occurs
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V. Mammal Lungs (gets smaller as you go down) k. Nostrils l. Nasal Cavity
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Biology 102 Notes Final Exam - Respiration I. Two Types a....

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