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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 11 DECISION MAKING AND RELEVANT INFORMATION 11-1 The five steps in the decision process outlined in Exhibit 11-1 of the text are 1. Identify the problem and uncertainties 2. Obtain information 3. Make predictions about the future 4. Make decisions by choosing among alternatives 5. Implement the decision, evaluate performance, and learn 11-2 Relevant costs are expected future costs that differ among the alternative courses of action being considered. Historical costs are irrelevant because they are past costs and, therefore, cannot differ among alternative future courses of action. 11-3 No. Relevant costs are defined as those expected future costs that differ among alternative courses of action being considered. Thus, future costs that do not differ among the alternatives are irrelevant to deciding which alternative to choose. 11-4 Quantitative factors are outcomes that are measured in numerical terms. Some quantitative factors are financialthat is, they can be easily expressed in monetary terms. Direct materials is an example of a quantitative financial factor. Qualitative factors are outcomes that are difficult to measure accurately in numerical terms. An example is employee morale. 11-5 Two potential problems that should be avoided in relevant cost analysis are (i) Do not assume all variable costs are relevant and all fixed costs are irrelevant. (ii) Do not use unit-cost data directly. It can mislead decision makers because a. it may include irrelevant costs, and b. comparisons of unit costs computed at different output levels lead to erroneous conclusions 11-6 No. Some variable costs may not differ among the alternatives under consideration and, hence, will be irrelevant. Some fixed costs may differ among the alternatives and, hence, will be relevant. 11-7 No. Some of the total unit costs to manufacture a product may be fixed costs, and, hence, will not differ between the make and buy alternatives. These fixed costs are irrelevant to the make-or-buy decision. The key comparison is between purchase costs and the costs that will be saved if the company purchases the component parts from outside plus the additional benefits of using the resources freed up in the next best alternative use (opportunity cost). Furthermore, managers should consider nonfinancial factors such as quality and timely delivery when making outsourcing decisions. 11-8 Opportunity cost is the contribution to income that is forgone (rejected) by not using a limited resource in its next-best alternative use. 1 11-10 No. Managers should aim to get the highest contribution margin per unit of the constraining (that is, scarce, limiting, or critical) factor. The constraining factor is what restricts or limits the production or sale of a given product (for example, availability of machine-hours)....
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