Exam 2 Study Guide - IAH 206 H Exam 2 Study Guide Essay...

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IAH 206 H Exam 2 Study Guide Essay Questions 1. More’s Utopia 1 a. In Greek, ‘utopia’ means not place; whereas nowadays it means an ideal of unachievable society. b. Monastic and human elements both pervaded Renaissance culture, the piece of music in which does this is that created by Josquin Desperez, and known as Qui habitat. The cultural tension that was manifested in the piece of art was that first of all it was a sacred text, which contained two elements. One which was called motet and its characteristics included sacred song, which was monophonic, and had a repeating rhythm. The other element was known as madrigal, and had contrasting characteristics to that of motet, which included secular song, with a polyphonic tone while lacking any sort of repeating beat. c. The Utopian society was the rediscovery of the idea that political authority is separate from divine authority, and both More and Machiavelli had their own perceptions on how this political authority should be used in society. More’s view on how political authority should be used was to preserve the common good and promote justice. Whereas on the contrary Machiavelli had the idea that to maintain law and order; nearly any means may be justified to promote political authority. 2. More’s Utopia 2 a. Aristotle’s ideal of the good life states that the best life for us is the life of excellence in intellectual activity (contemplative life), and the second best life for us is the life of practical activity, which says that a person is good at something and is a good person, whereas Uto pian’s ideal states that well-being is equal to real or natural mental and physical pleasure. The utopian ideal also states that mental pleasure has priority over physical pleasure, and is attributed to good behavior and a clear conscious. So, really the Utopian ideal states that mental pleasure is best for us followed by physical pleasure and then enjoyment. In conclusion, Aristotle’s ideal of the good life, and the Utopian ideal of well-being are related by they both state the same thing, just worded differently. b. The dramatic chipmunk problem brings up a few arguments, one of which is if pleasure is good sensation, the best pleasure feels best. This then leads to the next idea that says if the best pleasures feel best, distinction between higher/lower pleasures is unsustainable. This then argues that ple asure actually is good sensation. Some would argue that the 'dramatic chipmunk' video is enjoyable, but is neither intellectually stimulating nor productive. By the above definitions, watching this video would be in some way immoral, but few would actually consider it an immoral act, so the definitions must account for at least a few exceptions. 3. Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics a. The principle of utility states that actions or behaviors are right if they promote happiness or pleasure and are wrong if they produce unhappiness or pain. For example, if one were to play a game of basketball and in doing so they had fun then it would be a right choice. However if that same person were to play and sprain their ankle then
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