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From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations
Paleolithic Era Old Stone Age ±²³ million ´µ±¶··· years ago • The human species has been around for about ±²³ million years² • Therefore¶ over !!¸ of human existence relied on hunting and gathering² • The Paleolithic Era refers to the time before people developed stationary civilizations and settled down to live in one place² • Hominids´ members of the family of humans¶ from Australopithecus to Homo Sapiens Sapiens
What is a “hunter´gatherer"” • People were tied to the seasons of plants ¹for foodº that occurred naturally² • People were tied to the migration of animals² • A hunter´gatherer migrated from place to place throughout the year to gather food they could find and hunt animals they could find² • These are our “nomads²”
Characteristics of Paleolithic Age • Simple tool use – Used rocks and sticks for hunting and warfare • Use of controlled fire – For cooking • Population distribution – Humans spread all over the world¶ including to Africa¶ Asia and Europe • Population growth – Population of humans was estimated to be at µ²³ million humans by µ··¶··· years ago • Emergence of speech – Homo erectus ¹µ··¶··· years agoº began to transmit oral speech
What are the problems with hunting and gathering" • Population growth is small – Gathering nuts and berries cannot support large populations – Giving birth could be dangerous for women – Women had to care for infants¶ which took time away to do other chores • People had to work very hard – Had to roam widely for food – Had to stalk and kill prey
Emergence of Art • Perhaps the most famous cave art was found in Lascaux¶ France² • The paintings are estimated to be µ»¶··· years old² • There are over ±¶··· pictures in the Lascaux cave" animals¶ human figures and abstract signs² • Why is it so significant that prehistoric peoples began creating art"
µ² Where did the human species originate from" ±² In what part of the world are the most “sites” of humans" The Spread of Human Populations
Paleolithic v² Neolithic Simulation • Get in groups with ¼´³ people² Must be co´ed² • Complete Old Stone Age Round
Neolithic Revolution The New Stone Age »···´¼··· years ago • The Neolithic Revolution is the transition from hunting and gathering to agricultural settlement² • Invention of agriculture • Creation of cities • Increased population growth
Invention of Agriculture After the first two Ice Ages¶ humans deliberately planned to harvest plants¶ grains and vegetables for later harvest² People also began domesticating ¹raising for foodº animals such as pigs¶ sheep¶ goats¶ dogs¶ cattle² The development of agriculture clearly moved humans toward more sophisticated social and cultural patterns² In addition¶ metal tools were developed to aid in the planting and harvesting process²
µ² Where are the core areas of agriculture" ±² Where did specialty agriculture originate from" The Spread of Agriculture
Was it really a revolution" • No¶ because agriculture was not a sudden transformation²

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