ch10 - Myers' PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Thinking and Language...

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1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 10 Thinking and Language James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
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2 Thinking Cognition mental activity associated with processing understanding , and communicating information Cognitive Psychology the study of these mental activities concept  formation problem  solving decision  making judgement  formation study of both logical and illogical thinking
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3 Thinking Concept   mental grouping of similar objects , events , or people address country, city, street, house Postal codes Prototype the best example  of a category matching new items to the prototype  provides a quick and  easy method for including items in a category (as when  comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as  a robin.)
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4 Thinking Algorithm methodical , logical rule or procedure   that guarantees solving a particular  problem contrasts with the usually speedier – but  also more error-prone use of  heuristics
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5 Thinking Heuristic rule-of-thumb  strategy that often allows  us to make judgements and solve  problems efficiently usually speedier  than  algorithms   more error-prone  than  algorithms sometimes we’re unaware of using  heuristics
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6 Thinking Unscramble S P L O Y O C H Y G Algorithm all 907,208 combinations Heuristic throw out all YY combinations other heuristics?
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7 Thinking Insight sudden  and often novel  realization of the  solution to a problem contrasts with strategy-based  solutions Confirmation Bias tendency to search for information that  confirms  one’s preconceptions Fixation inability to see a problem from a new  perspective impediment to problem solving
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8 Thinking- Insight Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment on insight by a  chimpanzee
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9 The Matchstick Problem How would you  arrange six  matches to form  four equilateral  triangles? 
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2009 for the course PGS 101 taught by Professor Blan during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

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ch10 - Myers' PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Thinking and Language...

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