BIOL125_Ch1 Lecture Notes

BIOL125_Ch1 Lecture Notes - BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Lecture...

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BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Lecture Notes Chapter 1: Main Themes of Microbiology 1. WHAT IS MICROBIOLOGY? a. The study of organisms too small to be seen with the unaided eye (smaller than 1 mm). 2. FEATURES SHARED BY MICROORGANISMS a. Specialized cells that require nutrition and can reproduce. b. Microscope required to see. c. Reproduce very quickly; hence, the term “germs.” d. Very diverse in morphology, physiology, genetics, and applications. i. Morphology – the form and structure of an organism or any of its parts. ii. Unique Characteristics or Traits – those things that are unique to a specific microorganism (ex. the ability to live in the sun). e. Examples include bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, helminthes (parasitic worms), and protozoa. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROBES a. Types. i. Two main types of microorganisms. 1) Prokaryotes (pro = before) – microscopic, unicellular organisms that lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles. They are smaller than eukaryotes. These are the oldest microorganisms. 2) Eukaryotes (eu = true) – unicellular (microscopic) and multicellular organisms that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (ex. protozoa, algae, fungi, helminthes). ii. Other type of microorganisms. 1) Viruses – specialized acellular parasite particles. They are not cells (i.e. does not use nutrition, but does reproduce). They are built from nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat. b. Ubiquitous (i.e. found everywhere in the soil, air, and water). c. Lifestyle (i.e. where they get their energy). i. Freeliving – derive nutrients from nonliving material. ii. Parasitic – derive nutrients from living organisms (host) and harm them later. d. Size. i. Protozoans (millimeters), bacteria (micrometers), and viruses (nanometers). 4. EVOLUTION OF MICROORGANISMS File: 61c65d787571faaac03ce2a861a85d6cef976ec7.doc Updated 8/14/09
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Lecture Notes Chapter 1 Page 2 a. Primitive bacteria – 3.5 billion years ago. b. Prokaryotes – 2 billion years ago. c. Eukaryotes – 1.8 billion years ago. 5. STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS a. Taxonomy. i. Formal system originated by Carl von Linné (1701-1778). ii. Taxonomy deals with organizing, classifying, and naming living things. 1) Identification – discovering and recording traits or organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes. 2) Classification – orderly arrangement of organisms into groups. 3) Nomenclature – assigning names. b. Naming microorganisms. i. Names are based on morphology, ecology, discoverer, etc. ii.
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2009 for the course BIOL 125 taught by Professor Dr.sujathapamula during the Spring '09 term at San Jacinto.

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BIOL125_Ch1 Lecture Notes - BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Lecture...

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