BIOL125_Ch7 Lecture Notes

BIOL125_Ch7 Lecture - BIOL 125(Microbiology Lecture Notes Chapter 7 Elements of Microbial Nutrition Ecology and Growth 1 MICROBIAL NUTRITION a b

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BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Lecture Notes Chapter 7: Elements of Microbial Nutrition, Ecology, and Growth 1. MICROBIAL NUTRITION a. Nutrition – process by which chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired from the environment and used for cellular activities (ex. growth and metabolism). b. Essential Nutrients – must be provided to an organism through food that they consume. They cannot be synthesized by the body. i. Can be classified based on: 1) The amount required by the organism (macronutrients, micronutrients or trace elements). a) Macronutrients are required in large quantities; play principal roles in cell structure and metabolism. Includes proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids; carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. b) Micronutrients or trace elements are required in small amounts; involved in enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure. Includes manganese, zinc, nickel, iron, etc. 2) Carbon presence (organic, inorganic). a) Inorganic nutrients – molecule that contains a combination of atoms other than the combination of carbon and hydrogen. Derived from earth’s environment. b) Organic nutrients – contain carbon and hydrogen atoms combinations and are made by living things. Includes methane (CH 4 ), carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. ii. How Essential Nutrients Are Acquired. 1) Varies from organism to organism. 2) Phototrophs – use sunlight, inorganic nutrients found in the soil, and atmosphere to make organic nutrients. 3) Heterotrophs – obtain organic nutrients from live or dead material. 4) Parasites – otrain organic nutrients from their hosts. iii. Essential nutrients are derived from the earth’s environment: air, water, and soil. These are constantly recycled to replenish the natural reservoir. 1) These include the sources for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, trace metals, and growth factors. 2. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL CYTOPLASM a. 96% of cell is composed of 6 elements (CHONPS) – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, File: 4ee168bb9adb8dbbceb123a59014e0f1233b3631.doc Updated 8/14/09
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Lecture Notes Chapter 7 Page 2 phosphorous, and sulfur. b. Essential Nutrients: How are the acquired by organisms. i. Phototrophs – use sunlight, inorganic nutrients found in the soil and atmosphere to make organic nutrients. ii. Heterotrophs – obtain organic nutrients from live or dead material. iii. Parasites – obtain organic nutrients from their live hosts. c. Carbon Sources. i. Can be obtained from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. ii. Heterotroph – must obtain carbon in an organic form made by other living organisms, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. They can be from dead or living sources. iii.
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2009 for the course BIOL 125 taught by Professor Dr.sujathapamula during the Spring '09 term at San Jacinto.

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BIOL125_Ch7 Lecture - BIOL 125(Microbiology Lecture Notes Chapter 7 Elements of Microbial Nutrition Ecology and Growth 1 MICROBIAL NUTRITION a b

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