BIOL125_Ch9 Lecture Notes

BIOL125_Ch9 Lecture Notes - BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Lecture...

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BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Lecture Notes Chapter 9: Microbial Genetics 1. GENOME a. Genome – sum total of genetic material of an organism found on the chromosomes. i. Gemomes vary in size, depending on the organism. 1) Examples: E. coli contains a single chromosome, containing approximately 4,288 genes; 1 mm long (1000X longer than the cell); and contains approximately 4 million base pairs. The human cell contains 46 chromosomes, containing approximately 31,000 genes; 6 feet long (180,000X longer than the cell); and contains approximately 3 billion base pairs. 2) The smallest virus contains 4-5 genes. b. Chromosomes – individual structures that are made of DNA that store information essential for the survival of the cell. i. Bacterial chromosomes are single and circular, and not bound to histone proteins. In bacteria, there is only one chromosome. ii. Eukaryotic chromosomes are multiple and linear, and are bound to histone proteins. In humans, there are 46 chromosomes. iii.
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BIOL125_Ch9 Lecture Notes - BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Lecture...

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