BIOL125_Ch12 Notes

BIOL125_Ch12 Notes - BIOL 125(Microbiology Text and Lecture...

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BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Text and Lecture Notes Chapter 12: Drugs, Microbes, Host – The Elements of Chemotherapy 12.1. PRINCIPLES OF ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY a. Goal of antimicrobial chemotherapy – administer a drug to an infected person that destroys the infective agent without harming the host’s cells. b. Table 12.2: Terminology of Chemotherapy i. Chemotherapeutic Drug – chemical used in the treatment, relief, or prophylaxis of a disease. ii. Prophylaxis – process that prevents infection or disease in a person at risk. iii. Antimicrobial Chemotherapy – use of drugs to control infection. iv. Antimicrobials – any antimicrobial drug, regardless of origin. v. Antibiotics – substances produced by the natural metabolic processes of some microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms. vi. Semisynthetic Drugs – drugs chemically modified in the lab after being isolated from natural sources. vii. Narrow-Spectrum (Limited-Spectrum) – antimicrobials effective against a limited number of microbial types. viii. Broad-Spectrum (Extended-Spectrum) – antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types. c. The Origins of Antimicrobial Drugs i. The greatest number of antibiotics are derived from Streptomyces and Bacillus bacteria; and Penicillium and Cephalosporium molds. ii. Lecture Notes: Microbes produce antibiotics to inhibit other microbes in the same environment, so that there is less competition for nutrients and space. 12.2. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS AND MICROBES a. Goal of antimicrobial drugs: disrupt cell processes or structures of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa; or inhibit the virus multiplication cycle. b. Most antimicrobial chemotherapy drugs interfere with enzymes required to synthesize or assemble macromolecules. c. Selectively Toxic – drugs should kill or inhibit microbial growth without simultaneously damaging host tissues. d. Mechanisms of Drug Action i. Five major components that are useful drug targets in an actively dividing cell: 1) Inhibit cell wall synthesis. File: 511bb8df6916ec2730de918d44ab60eb9b5a6cb8.doc Updated 8/14/09
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Microbiology Text and Lecture Notes Chapter 12: Drugs, Microbes, Host – The Elements of Chemotherapy Page 2 2) Breakdown cell membrane structure or function. 3) Inhibit structures and functions of DNA and RNA. 4) Inhibit protein synthesis. 5) Block key metabolic pathways. ii. The Spectrum of an Antimicrobic Drug 1) Drug Spectrum – particular range or activity for each drug. iii. Antimicrobial Drugs That Affect the Bacterial Cell Wall 1) Active cells must constantly synthesize new peptidoglycan and transport it to its proper place in the cell envelope. 2) Bactericidal antibiotics are those that weaken the cell, making them subject to lysis. 3)
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BIOL125_Ch12 Notes - BIOL 125(Microbiology Text and Lecture...

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