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BIOL125_Ch15 Notes - BIOL 125(Microbiology Text and Lecture...

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BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Text and Lecture Notes Chapter 15: Adaptive, Specific Immunity and Immunization 15.1. SPECIFIC IMMUNITY: THE ADAPTIVE LINE OF DEFENSE a. Acquired adaptive immunity is the product of B and T-lymphocytes. b. Lecture Notes. i. Third Line of Defense – cells that participate in providing acquired immunity include: B-lymphocytes (produce antibodies) and T-lymphocytes (produce sensitized cells in response to an antigen). ii. Immunity (two types). 1) Specific Immunity. a) Two types of specific immunity: i) Antibody mediated. ii) Cell mediated (two types): CD4 T-cells and CD8 T-cells. b) Two features that characterize specific immunity: i) Specificity – B-cells produce antibodies that function only against the antigen that they were exposed to. ii) Memory – lymphocytes are programmed to “recall” their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters. 2) Non-Specific Immunity (three types). a) Physical (ex. temperature, barriers, and mechanical effects). b) Chemical Substances. c) Cellular (ex. neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, and basophils). iii. Development and differentiation of immune system. 1) Receptors on the cell membrane differentiate one immune cell from another. 2) Genes referred to as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) found in clusters on the chromosome 6 code for the receptors. These are referred to as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in humans. 3) Immune cells develop and differentiate by colonal selection and colonal expansion. c. Immunocompetence – ability of the body to react with a wide spectrum of foreign substances. File: 6c12e5635c6f22a091d98061e4f00fb0537f7ded.doc Updated 8/14/09
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Microbiology Text and Lecture Notes Chapter 15: Adaptive, Specific Immunity and Immunization Page 2 d. Antigens – molecules that stimulate a response by T and B-cells. i. Antigens are protein or polysaccharide molecules on or inside cells and viruses. ii. Environmental chemicals can also be antigens. iii. In addition, any exposed of released protein or polysaccharide is potentially an antigen, even those of our own cells. e. Lecture Notes. i. Antibodies – large, Y-shaped proteins that consist of four polypeptide chains (two short and two long). 1) Each peptide contains: a) Variable Regions – two identical fragments (Fab) with ends that bind to specific antigen (lock and key specificity). b) Constant Regions – Fc binds to various cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and lymphocytes. i) Constant regions facilitate opsonization, agglutination, and neutralization. f. Two features that most characterize adaptive immunity are: specificity and memory. g. A General Scheme for Classifying Immunities i. Active Immunity – an individual receives an immune stimulus (antigen) that activates specific lymphocytes, causing an immune response such as the production of antibodies.
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