BIOL125_Ch16 Notes

BIOL125_Ch16 Notes - BIOL 125(Microbiology Text and Lecture...

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BIOL 125 (Microbiology) Text and Lecture Notes Chapter 16: Immune Disorders 16.1. THE IMMUNE RESPONSE: A TWO-SIDED COIN a. Immunopathology - study of disease states associated with overreactivity of the immune response. i. Lecture Notes. 1) Immunopathology encompasses overactivity and underactivity. b. Overreactions to Antigens: Allergy/Hypersensitivity i. Allergy – condition of altered reactivity or exaggerated immune responsiveness manifested by inflammatory symptoms. 1) Some refer to immediate reactions as allergies, and to delayed reactions as hypersensitivities. ii. Four major categories of allergies introduced by immunologists Gell and Coombs: 1) Type I – common allergies and anaphylaxis. 2) Type II – IgG and IgM-mediated cell damage. 3) Type III – immune complex. 4) Type IV – delayed hypersensitivity. iii. Generally, Types I, II, and III involve a B-cell immunoglobulin response; and Type IV involves a T-cell response. iv. Lecture Notes. 1) The four allergy classifications are based on: a) Type of specific immunity mediated response (cell mediated response or humoral response). b) How long it takes to initiate a response (immediate or delayed). c) Antigen source (exogenous antigen or self antigen). 2) Allergen – an antigen that overstimulates the immune system. Note that all allergens are antigens, but not all antigens are allergens. File: d02493104f2a16a6cf32b018a0505cec5b2ea91a.doc Updated 8/14/09
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Microbiology Text and Lecture Notes Chapter 16: Immune Disorders Page 2 QuickTime f and a decompres or are ne ded to se this picture. 16.2. TYPE I ALLERGIC REACTIONS: ATOPY AND ANAPHYLAXIS a. Type I Allergies – immediate onset associated with exposure to speciFic antigens. i. There are two levels oF severity: atopy and anaphylaxis. 1) Atopy – any chronic local allergy, such as hayFever or asthma. 2) Anaphylaxis – systemic reaction involving airway obstruction and circulatory collapse. b. Modes oF Contact with Allergens i. Predisposition to Type I allergies has a strong Familial association. 1) Heredity determines generalized susceptibility, not susceptibility to a speciFic substance. c. The Nature oF Allergens and Their Portals oF Entry i. Proteins are more allergenic than carbohydrates, Fats, or nucleic acids. ii. Some allergens are haptens (nonproteinaceous substances with a molecular weight oF less than 1,000 that can Form complexes with carrier molecules in the body. iii. Allergens typically enter through epithelial portals in the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. 1) Allergens are classiFied by the portal oF entry: inhalants, ingestants, injectants, and contactants. iv. The organ oF allergic reaction may or may not be the same as the portal oF entry. d.
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BIOL125_Ch16 Notes - BIOL 125(Microbiology Text and Lecture...

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