BI13_Ch5 PP Slides

BI13_Ch5 PP Slides - The Integumentary System Chapter 5...

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The Integumentary System Chapter 5
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Goals • Learn the structure and function of the skin layers • Understand normal and abnormal skin color • Lean structure and function of skin appendages • Understand what causes skin ailments
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Functions of the Skin • Protects underlying tissues • Senses stimuli • Prevents dehydration • Aids in heat loss • Keeps out microbes • Makes vitamin D Thickness of paper towel but weighs 10 lbs
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Structure of Skin • Epidermis: outer layer – Stratified squamous epithelium • Dermis: deeper layer – Dense, fibrous connective tissue • Hypodermis – Adipose tissue just below skin – Not technically skin
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The Epidermis Layers Cells
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Thick vs. Thin Skin • Thick – Contains 5 layers (strata) • Stratum Lucidum – Palms, fingertips, soles • Thin – Contains 4 strata – Everywhere else
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Stratum Basale: Deepest Layer • A single layer of cells • Youngest keratinocytes • Constant cell division – Pushes older cells superiorly
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Stratum Spinosum • Several cell layers thick • Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments – Attached to desmosomes
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Stratum Granulosum: Cells Toughen-up and Start to Die • Cells flatten • Organelles disintegrate • Plasma membrane thickens • Granules accumulate – Filled with proteins for toughening and waterproofing • Cells above this layer are too far away from blood supply to live
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Stratum Lucidum: Clear Layer • Only found in thick skin • Contains a few layers of clear, flat, dead cells
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Stratum Corneum: Most Superficial • Stratified squamous cells – 20 - 30 cells thick • Keratin protein – Toughens • Glycolipid – Waterproofs • Horny cells – Flake off = dandruff – New skin every 25-40 days
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Actual Skin Section
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The Epidermis Layers Cells
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Keratinocytes: Most Common Epidermal Cell • Produced in the stratum basale and rise – Fill with keratin and die • Linked by desmosomes • Millions rubbed off every day • Excess rubbing thickens epidermis – Callus
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Melanocytes: Produce Melanin • Spider-shaped epithelial cells in stratum basale • Melanin – Pigment that protects DNA from UV light damage – Transfer in granules to keratinocytes • Suntan – Melanin production is increased in response to sun exposure
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Langerhans’ Cells: Immune Sentry • Star-shaped dendritic cells • Fixed macrophages – Immune cells • Digest (phagocytose) microorganisms trying to infect the body
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Merkel Cells: Touch Receptors • Located at the epidermis/dermis junction • Merkel disk – Merkel cell + sensory nerve ending – Receptor for touch
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2009 for the course BI 13 taught by Professor Alexasawa,ph.d during the Spring '09 term at College of the Desert.

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BI13_Ch5 PP Slides - The Integumentary System Chapter 5...

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