BI13_Ch5 Review - BI 13(Anatomy Physiology 1 Review Chapter...

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Review Chapter 5: Integumentary System INSTRUCTOR’S STUDY GUIDE 1. What are some of the general functions of skin? Protects underlying tissue; senses stimuli; prevents dehydration; aids in heat loss; keeps microbes out; and makes vitamin D. 2. What are the two major layers of the skin? Epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). 3. What is the hypodermis? Subcutaneous tissue consisting mostly of adipose tissue; located just below the dermis; not actually part of the skin; anchors the skin; acts as a shock absorber and insulator; also called superficial fascia . 4. Which of these layers is an epithelial layer? 5. What are keratinocytes? What is keratin? Most epidermal cells are keratinocytes. Their chief role is to produce keratin protein; originate in the stratum basale. 6. What are melanocytes? What do they do? Spider-shaped epithelial cells located in the deepest layers of the epidermis; Melanocytes synthesize melanin pigment. 7. What is a Merkel cell? Each merkel cell is associated with a sensory nerve ending (together called a Merkel disc) that function as a sensory receptor for touch; Located at the epidermal-dermal junction. 8. What are Langerhan’s cells Star-shaped dendritic cells; Arise from the bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis; phagocytes that ingest foreign substances and help activate the immune system. 9. How is thick skin distinct? Where is thick skin located? Thick skin contains five layers (stratum lucidum present), whereas thin skin has only four layers (stratum lucidum not present). Thick skin covers the palms, fingers, and soles. 10. What occurs in the layer of the stratum granulosum that affects the keratinocytes? cells flatten; organelles disintegrate; plasma membrane thickens; granules filled with proteins
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BI13_Ch5 Review - BI 13(Anatomy Physiology 1 Review Chapter...

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