BI13_Ch6 Text Notes


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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1 TEXT NOTES Chapter 6 – Bones and Skeletal Tissues 1. SKELETAL CARTILAGES a. Basic Structure, Types, and Locations i. Skeletal Cartilage – made of cartilage tissue which consists primarily of water. 1) Skeletal cartilage contains all three types of cartilage. ii. Cartilage contains no nerves or blood vessels, and is surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue, the perichondrium . 1) The perichondrium contains blood vessels from which nutrients diffuse through the matrix to reach the cartilage cells. iii. There are three types of cartilage tissue: hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage. 1) All types contain the same basic components: cells ( chondrocytes ), encased in small cavities ( lacunae ) within an extracellular matrix. 2) Hyaline Cartilage – provides support with flexibility and resilience. It is the most abundant skeletal cartilage. a) Skeletal hyaline cartilage includes: i) Articular Cartilage – which cover the ends of most bones at moveable joints. ii) Costal Cartilage – connect the ribs to the sternum. iii) Respiratory Cartilage – form the skeleton of the larynx and reinforce other respiratory passageways. iv) Nasal Cartilage – supports the external nose. 3) Elastic Cartilage – contain more stretchy elastic fibers, so they are able to withstand repeated bending. a) Elastic cartilage is only found in two skeletal locations: the external ear and the epiglottis. 4) Fibrocartilage – highly compressible and have great tensile strength. a) Fibrocartilage appears in areas subjected to heavy pressure and stretch, such as in the menisci (knee cartilage) and the discs between the vertebrae. b. Growth of Cartilage i. Cartilage has a flexible matrix which can accommodate mitosis. ii. Typically, cartilage growth ends during adolescence, when the skeleton stops growing. File: 4065bd041c0696d46dd2363554ec740ce4b00998.doc Updated: 8/14/09
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Chapter 6 Page 2 iii. Under some conditions, calcium salts may be deposited in the matrix and cause it to harden, a process called calcification . Note that this is calcified cartilage, not bone. iv. Cartilage grows in two ways: appositional growth and interstitial growth. 1) Appositional Growth – cartilage-forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue. 2) Interstitial Growth – the lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF BONES a. There are 206 bones in the body, divided into two groups: axial and appendicular. i. Axial Skeleton – includes bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. ii. Appendicular Skeleton – includes the bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton. b.
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2009 for the course BI 13 taught by Professor Alexasawa,ph.d during the Spring '09 term at College of the Desert.

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