BI13_Ch8 Text Notes - ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1 TEXT NOTES...

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1 TEXT NOTES Chapter 8 – Joints 1. CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS a. Joints (Articulations) – sites where two or more bones meet. b. Joints are the weakest parts of the skeleton. c. Joints are classified by structure and function. i. Structurally, there are fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints. ii. Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint. 1) Synarthroses – immovable joints. 2) Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints. 3) Diarthroses – freely moveable joints. 4) Diarthroses are predominate in the limbs; synarthroses and amphiarthoroses are largely restricted to the axial skeleton. 5) Generally, fibrous joints are immovable; synovial joints are freely movable; cartilaginous joints can be rigid or slightly moveable. 2. FIBROUS JOINTS a. Fibrous Joints – bones are joined by fibrous tissue; no joint cavity is present. i. Most fibrous joints are immovable. ii. There are three types of fibrous joints: sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses. b. Sutures i. Sutures – occur only between bones of the skull. ii. After the fibrous tissue ossifies, the sutures are called synostoses (means “bony junctions”). c. Syndesmoses i. Syndesmoses – bones connected by a ligament. ii. The amount of movement depends on the length of the connecting fibers. True movement is still prevented. d. Gomphoses i. Gomphoses – a peg-in-socket fibrous joint. The only example is the articulation of a tooth with its bony alveolar socket. ii. The fibrous connection is the short periodontal ligament . File: 2903147193dd88fe038eeee5ae2367f487e2413b.doc Updated: 8/14/09
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A&P 1 TEXT NOTES Chapter 8 Page 2 3. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS a. Cartilaginous Joints – articulating bones are united by cartilage; they lack a joint cavity. i. Two types of cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphyses. b. Synchondroses i. Synchondroses – where a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones. ii. Virtually all synchondroses are synarthrotic. iii. Examples: epiphyseal plates in children; immovable joint between the costal cartilage of the first rib and the manubrium. 1) Epiphyseal plate are temporary joints and eventually become synostoses. c. Symphyses i. Symphyses – articular bone surfaces are covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage, which is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage. ii. Symphyses are amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength with flexibility. iii. Examples: intervertebral joints; pubic symphysis. 4. SYNOVIAL JOINTS a. Synovial Joints – those in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid- containing joint cavity. All synovial joints are freely moveable diarthroses. b. Examples: all joints of the limbs (most joints of the body). c. General Structure i. Synovial joints have five distinguishing features. 1) Articular Cartilage – glassy-smooth hyaline cartilage covering opposing bone surfaces. Absorbs compression placed on the joint, keeping the bones from being crushed.
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