BI13_Ch9 PP Slides

BI13_Ch9 PP Slides - Muscles and Muscle Tissue Chapter 9...

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Muscles and Muscle Tissue Chapter 9
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Goals • Know the types and functions of muscles • Describe muscle anatomy – Gross and microscopic • Understand muscle cell physiology – How muscles contract – How contraction is stimulated • Know 3 ways for muscles to make ATP • Describe similarities and differences between the 3 types of muscle fibers
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Introduction Muscle Functions Muscle Types
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Muscles Produce Movement • Muscles are attached to bones – Contraction of muscles across joints produces movement • Also stabilizes posture
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Muscles Stabilize Joints • Bone and ligaments alone cannot support joints • Muscle tonus is critical for maintaining joint stability – Chapter 8
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Muscles Generate Heat • Contraction generates heat • 40% body mass is skeletal muscle – Shivering increases body temp
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Muscles Protect Underlying Organs • Encloses and cushions viscera • Forms valves that regulate the passage of substances in and out of body
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Introduction Muscle Functions Muscle Types Smooth Cardiac Skeletal
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Smooth Muscle Location • Walls of hollow organs – Stomach and bladder • Arranged as two overlapping sheets – Longitudinal layer • Opens and fatten – Circular layer • Closes and elongates – Peristalsis • Layers alternate contractions • Pushes organ contents through
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Smooth Muscle Morphology Oval Uninucleate Not striated Caveolae – PM indentations that hold extracellular Ca 2+ Connected by gap junctions – Contract as a group – Don’t need a neuron for every cell Smooth Skeletal
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Smooth Muscle Contractions Involuntary Control – Autonomic nervous system – Hormones • Like oxytocin released during labor – Stretch Slow and sustained contractions – 30x more slower than skeletal muscle – Produce the same force for 1% the energy cost
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Introduction Muscle Functions Muscle Types Smooth Cardiac Skeletal
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Location and Morphology • Found only in the heart • Striated muscle • Uni and binucleate branched cells • Intercalated disks – Where cells are connected by desmosomes and gap junctions
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Cardiac Muscle Contractions • Not under voluntary control • Controlled by pacemaker cells – Automatically initiate contraction without nervous system input • Nervous input can affect the rate and strength of contraction
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Introduction Muscle Functions Muscle Types Smooth Cardiac Skeletal
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Location and Morphology • Attached to bones • These are the largest muscle cells – A single long cell is called a fiber • Cells are multinucleate • Striated muscle
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Skeletal Muscle Contractions • Under voluntary control – Contracts only in response to nervous input • Uses a huge amount of energy • Exert a wide range of forces – Gentile to hard • Strong but tire rapidly
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Practice Test Questions • Which of the following is not a function of the muscles? – Movement
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BI13_Ch9 PP Slides - Muscles and Muscle Tissue Chapter 9...

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