BI13_Ch11 Text & Lecture Notes

BI13_Ch11 Text & Lecture Notes - ANATOMY AND...

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 1 TEXT AND LECTURE NOTES Chapter 11 – Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM a. Nervous system has three overlapping functions: sensory input; integration; and motor output. i. Lecture Notes: Three overlapping functions are sense, think, and respond. ii. Sensory Input – information gathered from sensory receptors which monitor changes inside and outside the body. iii. Integration – processing and interpretation of sensory inputs, and deciding what should be done. iv. Motor Output – response by activating effector organs. b. Nervous system is divided into two principal parts: central and peripheral nervous systems. i. Central Nervous System (CNS) – brain and spinal cord; occupies the dorsal body cavity. 1) Lecture Notes: CNS is the command and integration center. It is filled with fluid, not blood. ii. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – nervous system outside the CNS. 1) Spinal Nerves – carry impulses to and from the spinal cord. 2) Cranial Nerves – carry impulses to and from the brain. 3) Lecture Notes: PNS carries impulses to and from the brain; connects all of the body to the CNS. 4) PNS has two functional subdivisions: sensory and motor divisions. a) Sensory (Afferent) Division – nerve fibers that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors in the body. i) Somatic Afferent Fibers – sensory fibers conveying impulses from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints. ii) Visceral Afferent Fibers – fibers transmitting impulses from the visceral organs (within the ventral body cavity). b) Motor (Efferent) Division – transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs, which are the muscles and glands. i) The motor division has two main parts: voluntary and autonomic nervous systems. 1 Voluntary (Somatic) Nervous System somatic motor nerve fibers (axons) that conduct impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles. File: 140523ecf1e210d200c83d5396b709d6dca03800.doc Updated: 8/14/09
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Chapter 11 – Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Page 2 2 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands. a ANS has two functional subdivisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic, which typically work in opposition to each other. i Sympathetic Division mobilizes body systems during activity. ii Parasympathetic Division conserves energy; promotes housekeeping functions during rest. 2. HISTOLOGY OF NERVOUS TISSUE a. Nervous tissue is made up of two principle types of cells: supporting cells and neurons. i. Supporting Cells – smaller cells that surround and wrap the neurons. ii.
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2009 for the course BI 13 taught by Professor Alexasawa,ph.d during the Spring '09 term at College of the Desert.

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BI13_Ch11 Text & Lecture Notes - ANATOMY AND...

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